Human Anatomy Lecture Exam 2

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by jcalvillo883
46 views
updated 4 years ago by jcalvillo883
Subjects:
human anatomy
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What are the two parts of the Integumentary system?

  1. Skin
  2. Appendages
2

What are the parts of the appendages?

  1. Nails
  2. Follicles
  3. Hair
  4. Sudoriferous Glands (sweat glands)
  5. Sebaceous Glands (oil glands)
3

What are the five layers of epidermis?

  1. Stratum basale
  2. Stratum spinosum
  3. stratum granulsum
  4. Stratum Lucidum
  5. Stratum Cornem
4

What separates the epidermis and dermis?

Basement membrane

5

What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?

Stratum basale

6

Which layer of the epidermis is one layer thick and attached to the base membrane?

Stratum basale

7

All the cells are alive in the stratum basale. True or False

True

8

How many layers is the stratum spinosum?

2-3 layers thick

9

Which layer of the epidermis contains granules?

Stratum granulsum

10

Which layer of the epidermis contains keratohyaline or hyalokeratin?

Stratum granulsum

11

Which layer in the epidermis is dead?

Stratum granulsum

12

Which layer in the epidermis is found in thick skin and "stressed" areas?

Stratum lucidum

13

Which layer in the epidermis contains eldeidin?

Stratum lucidum

14

Which layer of the epidermis is the outermost layer?

Stratum Cornem

15

Which layer in the epidermis contains Keratin?

Stratum cornem

16

Eleidin, keratohyaline and keratin

What is the order?

Kerahyaline -> Eleidin -> keratin

17

What are the functions of the skin?

  • Protects from abrasion
  • Protects from infection
  • Protects from desiccation
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Produces vitamin D
18

What are the two components of dermis (coreum)?

  1. Papillate dermis
  2. Reticulate dermis
19

What is the papillate dermis?

  • the portion of the dermis that interdigitate with the epidermis
20

What is the reticulate dermis?

  • the remainder of the dermis, deep to the Papillate dermis
21

What does the sebaceous gland secret and where into?

  • Oil gland
  • Secrets sebum into hair follicles
22

What kind of gland is the sebaceous gland?

Merocrine gland

23

What does the sudoriferous gland secret?

  • Secrets sweat
24

What type of gland is the sudoriferous gland?

  • Holocrine gland
25

What does the apocrine gland secrete?

  • Secrets fluid and broken cells
26

What is an example of apocrine gland?

Mammary gland

27

What does the merocrine secrete?

  • Secretes fluid only
28

What does the holocrine secrete?

  • Secretes fluid and whole cells
29

Is the epidermis vascularized?

  • Not vascularized
30

Is the dermis vascularized?

  • vascularized
31

Is the hypodermic vascularized?

  • Highly vascularized
32

What are the components of the urinary system?

  1. Two Kidneys
  2. Two ureters
  3. urinary bladder
  4. Urethra
33

What are the functions of the urinary system?

  • maintains homeostasis
  • maintains water balance
  • maintains salt balance
  • eliminates waste
  • maintains blood pressure
  • regulates RBC production via erythropoietin (hemopoietin)
  • stores urine temporarily
34

What type of nitrogenous waste does the urinary system dispose of?

  • Urea
  • Uric acid
  • creatinine
35

What is rugae?

The large, inner folds of the stomach wall

36

What is the hilum?

concave medial portion of the kidney where renal A and V and ureter enter or exit

37

What is the renal cortex?

outer portion of the frontally bisected kidney

38

What does the renal cortex contain?

  • Bowman's capsules
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Distal convoluted tubule
39

What is the medulla?

inner portion of the frontally bisected kidney

40

What does the medulla in the kidney contain?

  • Renal columns
  • Renal pyramids
  • Loops of Henle
  • Collecting ducting
41

What does the medulla contain?

  • Renal columns
  • Renal Pyramids
  • Loops of Henle
42

What is the renal pyramids?

cone-shaped areas in the renal medulla with apex pointing toward hilum; contain Loops of Henle

43

What are the renal columns?

areas of the medulla between the renal pyramids; arterioles and venules are notable here

44

What is a nephron?

the physiological unit of the kidney

45

What are the three processes of the nephron?

  1. Filtration
  2. Resorption
  3. Secretion
46

Where does filtration occur in the nephron?

Renal Corpuscle

47

Where does resorption and secretion occur in the nephron?

Proximal convoluted tubule (promixal convoluted tubule)

loop of henle (secretion)

48

What are the two classes of nephrons?

  1. Cortical Nephron
  2. Juxtamedullary nephron
49

What is the bowman's capsule?

first part of the nephron; it encircles the glomerulus and collects plasma expressed by the glomerular capillaries

50

Where is the bowman's capsule located?

In the renal cortex

51

What is the glomerulus?

capillary network within the Bowman's capsule

52

What is the proximal convoluted tubules?

first section of the nephron after Bowman's capsule; very efficient at resorption of water, proteins, ions

53

What is the Loop of Henle?

this consists of a descending, loop, and ascending portion; as fluid passes through the loop it is surrounded by a capillary system (vasa recta) which reabsorbs selected nutrients into the blood and permits secretion of toxins into it

54

What is the loop of henle surrounded by?

vasa recta

55

What is the distal convoluted tubules?

final section of the nephron; these tubules gather around the Bowman's capsule of their own nephron

56

What is the collecting Duct?

a shared passageway; many nephrons empty urine into a single collecting duct

57

What is minor calyx?

the first, small chamber the urine enters after leaving the collecting duct

58

What is the major calyx?

a larger collecting area for urine, each receiving material from several minor calyces

59

What is the renal pelvis?

largest chamber within the kidney; urine collects here from the major calyces

60

What is the ureter?

Tubelike passageway from each kidney to the urinary bladder; the first portion of each ureter is retroperitoneal in position meaning that it is behind the peritoneum

61

What is the urinary bladder?

hollow organ with rugae; collects and stores urine temporarily

62

What is the urethra?

passageway from the bladder to the exterior

63

What are the three layers of the ureter?

  1. Muscosa
  2. Muscularis
  3. Adventitia
64

What is the lining of the ureter?

Muscosa

65

What are the two layers of the muscularis?

  1. Inner longitudinal smooth muscle
  2. Outer circular smooth muscle
66

What is the outer layer of the ureter?

adventitia

67

What are the folds called in the bladder?

Rugae

68

What are the functions of the kidneys?

  • Maintain the purity and chemical constancy of blood and other body fluids
  • Filters blood, sends toxins, metabolic wastes, excess water, and excess ions out of body in urine
69

What is the pathway of blood through the kidney?

  1. renal artery (followed by segmental and lobar arteries)
  2. segmental artery
  3. interlobar artery
  4. arcuate artery
  5. cortico radiate arterioles
  6. afferent arteriole
  7. glomerulus
  8. efferent arteriole
  9. vasa recta
    • arteria recta
    • vena recta
  10. cortico radiate vein
  11. arcuate vein
  12. interlobar vein
  13. renal vein
70

What are the two components of the digestive system?

  1. Gastro-intestinal tract = GI tract
  2. Accessory organs
71

What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?

  • Salivary glands
  • pancreas
  • liver
  • gallbladder
72

What are the GI tract organs?

  • Mouth
  • esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
73

What are the functions of the digestive system?

  1. Mechanical digestive
  2. Chemical digestive
  3. Stores fat
  4. Absorption of nutrients
  5. Re-absorption of nutrients
  6. Compaction of waste
74

What is mechanical digestion in the digestive system?

Breakdown of food to smaller size without chemical change

75

Where is the storage of food located?

Stomach

76

Where does absorption of nutrients occur in the digestive system?

Primarily in the small intestine with some activity in the stomach

77

Where does the compaction of waste and reabsorption of water occur in the digestive system?

Colon

78

What is the pharynx?

tubular GI structure from nasal cavity to larynx

79

Where is the nasopharynx located?

From the internal nares to the oropharynx

80

What does the nasopharynx contains?

Adenoids

81

What is peristalsis?

The sequential contraction of smooth muscle that moves a bolus toward the stomach

82

What is a bolus?

a swallowed piece of food or other object

83

Is the proximal or distal portion under voluntary control?

Proximal portion

84

What is located in oropharynx?

palatine and tonsils

85

What does the epiglottis do?

Covers the glottis during swallowing

86

What does the cardiac sphincter control?

controls the passage from the esophagus into the stomach and the sphincter muscles normally limit passage to one direction

87

What does the pyloric sphincter control?

Controls the passage from the stomach into the duodenum (small intestine)

88

What the is superior part of the stomach?

fundus

89

What portion in the stomach is inferior to the fundus and superior to the pylorus?

Cardia

90

What is the inferior part of the stomach?

Pylorus

91

What does the body of the stomach consist of?

Cardia and Pylorus

92

What is the greater curvature?

The curved surface of the lateral part of the stomach

93

What is the lesser curvature?

The curved surface of the medial part of the stomach

94

What does the lesser omentum do?

Holds stomach to liver and it is a dorsal body wall

95

What does the greater omentum do?

  • Stores fat
  • Protects from trauma
  • Insulate
96

What does the parotid salivary gland produce?

Produces salivary amylase to digest starch

97

What are the four main functions of the stomach?

  1. Mechanical digestion
  2. Chemical digestion of protein
  3. Storage of food
  4. Limited absorption
98

What does the pancreas do?

Produces the pancreatic amylase for the breakdown of carbohydrates (starch)

99

What type of gland is the pancreas?

  • It is a endocrine and exocrine gland
  • Endocrine function is producing insulin and glucagon
100

What is the biggest gland in the body?

The liver

101

What uses the most energy of the resting body?

The liver

102

What are the functions of the liver?

  • Detoxification of the blood
  • Breakdown of RBCs
  • Production of bile for use in fat emulsification (bile exits via the Hepatic Duct)
  • Regulation of body temperature
  • Storage of glucose as glycogen
103

Bile exits via what?

Hepatic duct

104

The production of what is used in fat emulsification?

Bile

105

What two ducts unite to form the common bile duct?

Cystic and hepatic ducts

106

What is the function of the gall bladder?

Stores bile that is produced by the liver

107

What duct does the gall bladder empty the bile?

Cystic Duct

108

What duct delivers pancreatic amylase to the ampula of vader?

Pancreatic duct

109

What is the principle site of digestion and absorption?

Small intestines

110

What organ has plicate circulares?

small intestines

111

What increases absorption in the small intestines?

Villi on the place circulares

112

True or false All classes of food are digested or emulsified in the small intestines

True

113

What are the three divisions of the small intestines?

  1. Duodenum
  2. Jejunum
  3. Ileum
114

What is the proximal end of the small intestine?

Duodenum

115

What organ is located in the curve of the duodenum?

Pancreas

116

Where does the duodenum begin?

At the pyloric sphincter of the stomach

117

Where does the ileum terminate?

At the ileocecal valve

118

What does the ileocecal valve do?

Regulate passage from the ileum (small intestine) into the cecum (large intestine)

119

What is the ileocecal valve?

A sphincter muscle valve that separates the small intestine and the large intestine.

120

What connects the pharynx and stomach?

esophagus

121

What are the functions of large intestines (colon)?

  • Reabsorption of waste
  • Compaction of waste
122

What are the segments of the large intestines (colon)? (proximal to distal)

  • Cecum
  • Ascending colon
  • transverse colon
  • descending colon
  • sigmoid colon
123

What is haustra?

Pouches of the colon (small intestine) due to differential contraction of the teniae coli

124

What are the three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon?

Teniae coli

125

What is the function of teniae coli?

differential contraction of the bands aids in the forward movement of the contents and form haustra

126

What is the lumen?

Cavity within the GI tract

127

What is the rugae in the stomach?

the large inner folds of the stomach wall that aid in mechanical digestion and movement of digested material.

128

What are villus?

"cylindrical" projections of the GI tract into the lumen.

129

What are microvilli?

Epithelium of Tunica muscularis

130

Villi are only present in what organ?

Small intestine (colon)

131

What is the tunica mucosa?

Lines the internal surface of the GI tract

132

What is the innermost layer of the GI tract?

tunica mucosa

133

What are the three layers of the tunica mucosa?

  1. Epithelial lining
  2. Lamina propria (capillary bed) (connective tissue)
  3. muscularis mucosa
134

What type of muscle is muscularis mucosa?

circular smooth muscle

135

What is the second layer of GI tract?

tunica submucosa

136

What type of tissue is the tunica submucosa?

Connective tissue

137

Is the tunica submucosa vascularized?

Yes highly vascularized

138

What is the tunica muscularis?

It is a double layer of smooth muscle of the GI tract and known as the muscular layer

139

What are the two layers of smooth muscle of the tunica muscularis and their functions?

  • The inner ring of muscle is circular and thus constricts the GI tract.
  • The outer layer is longitudinal smooth muscle and by working in conjunction with other areas of the same muscle type can alternately shorten or lengthen (by relaxation) local segments of the GI tract.
140

What is the outermost layer of the GI tract?

Tunica serosa or Adventita

141

What is the tunica serosa?

Serous membrane that covers and connects small intestine

142

Which arteries are large vessels?

Elastic arteries

143

Elastic arteries are close to which organ?

The heart

144

What are elastic arteries capable of?

Capable of expansion

145

Where is the vasa vasorum found in?

The wall of an elastic artery

146

What is the outer layer of vessels?

Tunica externa

147

What is the middle layer of vessels?

Tunica media

148

What type of muscle tissue is tunica media?

circular smooth muscle

149

What lines the lumen of vessels?

Tunica interna or tunica intima

150

Which artery pulses and moves blood?

muscle artery

151

Arteries carry deoxygenated or oxygenated blood?

Oxygenated blood

152

Which vessel has the tunica media reduced?

Vein

153

Which vessels have valves?

veins

154

Which are the smallest vessels?

capillary

155

Which vessels are the site of gas and nutrient exchange?

capillary

156

Capillary only consist of

tunica intima

157

What are the formed elements of the blood?

  1. Red blood cells
  2. White blood cells
  3. Platelets
158

What is another name for red blood cells?

erythrocyte

159

Which blood cells are enuleate (no nucleus)?

Red blood cells

160

What is another name of white blood cells?

leucocytes

161

What are the five white blood cells?

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Eosinophil
  3. Basophil
  4. Monocyte
  5. Lymphocyte
162

What is the function of neutrophil?

Attack bacteria

163

What is the function of eosinophil?

Attack parasites

164

What is the function of basophil?

Fights allergens

165

What is the function of Monocyte?

fight chronic disease

166

What is the function of lymphocyte?

  • "clean up cell"
  • capable of diapedesis
167

Name the granulocytes

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Eosinophil
  3. Basophil
168

Name the agranulocytes

  • Monocyte
  • Lymphocyte
169

What is another name of platelets?

Thrombocytes

170

What are platelets and their function?

shattered blood cells and needed for clotting

171

What are the non-formed elements of blood?

  1. Plasma
  2. Serum (sera)
172

What is plasma?

blood without formed elements and fibrinogen is present

173

What is serum (sera)?

Plasma without fibrinogen

174

What does the falciform ligament do?

Holds liver to diagram

175

Where is the heart located?

Mediastum

176

What serous membrane connects the small intestine to itself and the dorsal body wall?

Mesenteries proper

177

What serous membrane connects large intestine to itself and the dorsal wall?

Mesocolon

178

What are the layers of the pleural cavity?

  1. Parietal pleura
  2. Visceral pleura
179

What does the visceral pleura cover?

It is a serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung

180

What does the parietal pleura line?

parietal pleura is the outer membrane which is attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity

181

What is the space between the visceral and parietal pleura called?

Pleural Cavity

182

What does the visceral peritoneum cover?

Covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs

183

What does the parental peritoneum line?

lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities

184

What does the visceral pericardium do?

Lines the heart and it is the inner layer

185

What is the outer layer that covers the heart?

parietal pericardium

186

What does the broad ligament do?

Attaches ovary + ovaduct to body wall

187

What does the the round ligament do?

Attaches uterus, vagina and bladder to body wall

188

Do arteries have valves?

No

189

Do veins have valves?

Yes

190

What type of blood do arteries carry?

Oxygenated blood

191

What type of blood do veins carry?

Deoxygenated blood

192

Where do arteries carry the blood?

Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the blood

193

Where do veins carry the blood?

Veins carry blood from the rest of the body back to the heart