Human Anatomy Lecture Exam 2
What are the two parts of the Integumentary system?
What are the parts of the appendages?
- Sudoriferous Glands (sweat glands)
- Sebaceous Glands (oil glands)
What are the five layers of epidermis?
- Stratum basale
- Stratum spinosum
- stratum granulsum
- Stratum Lucidum
- Stratum Cornem
What separates the epidermis and dermis?
What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?
Which layer of the epidermis is one layer thick and attached to the base membrane?
All the cells are alive in the stratum basale. True or False
How many layers is the stratum spinosum?
2-3 layers thick
Which layer of the epidermis contains granules?
Which layer of the epidermis contains keratohyaline or hyalokeratin?
Which layer in the epidermis is dead?
Which layer in the epidermis is found in thick skin and "stressed" areas?
Which layer in the epidermis contains eldeidin?
Which layer of the epidermis is the outermost layer?
Which layer in the epidermis contains Keratin?
Eleidin, keratohyaline and keratin
What is the order?
Kerahyaline -> Eleidin -> keratin
What are the functions of the skin?
- Protects from abrasion
- Protects from infection
- Protects from desiccation
- Regulates body temperature
- Produces vitamin D
What are the two components of dermis (coreum)?
- Papillate dermis
- Reticulate dermis
What is the papillate dermis?
- the portion of the dermis that interdigitate with the epidermis
What is the reticulate dermis?
- the remainder of the dermis, deep to the Papillate dermis
What does the sebaceous gland secret and where into?
- Oil gland
- Secrets sebum into hair follicles
What kind of gland is the sebaceous gland?
What does the sudoriferous gland secret?
- Secrets sweat
What type of gland is the sudoriferous gland?
- Holocrine gland
What does the apocrine gland secrete?
- Secrets fluid and broken cells
What is an example of apocrine gland?
What does the merocrine secrete?
- Secretes fluid only
What does the holocrine secrete?
- Secretes fluid and whole cells
Is the epidermis vascularized?
- Not vascularized
Is the dermis vascularized?
Is the hypodermic vascularized?
- Highly vascularized
What are the components of the urinary system?
- Two Kidneys
- Two ureters
- urinary bladder
What are the functions of the urinary system?
- maintains homeostasis
- maintains water balance
- maintains salt balance
- eliminates waste
- maintains blood pressure
- regulates RBC production via erythropoietin (hemopoietin)
- stores urine temporarily
What type of nitrogenous waste does the urinary system dispose of?
- Uric acid
What is rugae?
The large, inner folds of the stomach wall
What is the hilum?
concave medial portion of the kidney where renal A and V and ureter enter or exit
What is the renal cortex?
outer portion of the frontally bisected kidney
What does the renal cortex contain?
- Bowman's capsules
- Proximal convoluted tubule
- Distal convoluted tubule
What is the medulla?
inner portion of the frontally bisected kidney
What does the medulla in the kidney contain?
- Renal columns
- Renal pyramids
- Loops of Henle
- Collecting ducting
What does the medulla contain?
- Renal columns
- Renal Pyramids
- Loops of Henle
What is the renal pyramids?
cone-shaped areas in the renal medulla with apex pointing toward hilum; contain Loops of Henle
What are the renal columns?
areas of the medulla between the renal pyramids; arterioles and venules are notable here
What is a nephron?
the physiological unit of the kidney
What are the three processes of the nephron?
Where does filtration occur in the nephron?
Where does resorption and secretion occur in the nephron?
Proximal convoluted tubule (promixal convoluted tubule)
loop of henle (secretion)
What are the two classes of nephrons?
- Cortical Nephron
- Juxtamedullary nephron
What is the bowman's capsule?
first part of the nephron; it encircles the glomerulus and collects plasma expressed by the glomerular capillaries
Where is the bowman's capsule located?
In the renal cortex
What is the glomerulus?
capillary network within the Bowman's capsule
What is the proximal convoluted tubules?
first section of the nephron after Bowman's capsule; very efficient at resorption of water, proteins, ions
What is the Loop of Henle?
this consists of a descending, loop, and ascending portion; as fluid passes through the loop it is surrounded by a capillary system (vasa recta) which reabsorbs selected nutrients into the blood and permits secretion of toxins into it
What is the loop of henle surrounded by?
What is the distal convoluted tubules?
final section of the nephron; these tubules gather around the Bowman's capsule of their own nephron
What is the collecting Duct?
a shared passageway; many nephrons empty urine into a single collecting duct
What is minor calyx?
the first, small chamber the urine enters after leaving the collecting duct
What is the major calyx?
a larger collecting area for urine, each receiving material from several minor calyces
What is the renal pelvis?
largest chamber within the kidney; urine collects here from the major calyces
What is the ureter?
Tubelike passageway from each kidney to the urinary bladder; the first portion of each ureter is retroperitoneal in position meaning that it is behind the peritoneum
What is the urinary bladder?
hollow organ with rugae; collects and stores urine temporarily
What is the urethra?
passageway from the bladder to the exterior
What are the three layers of the ureter?
What is the lining of the ureter?
What are the two layers of the muscularis?
- Inner longitudinal smooth muscle
- Outer circular smooth muscle
What is the outer layer of the ureter?
What are the folds called in the bladder?
What are the functions of the kidneys?
- Maintain the purity and chemical constancy of blood and other body fluids
- Filters blood, sends toxins, metabolic wastes, excess water, and excess ions out of body in urine
What is the pathway of blood through the kidney?
- renal artery (followed by segmental and lobar arteries)
- segmental artery
- interlobar artery
- arcuate artery
- cortico radiate arterioles
- afferent arteriole
- efferent arteriole
- vasa recta
- arteria recta
- vena recta
- cortico radiate vein
- arcuate vein
- interlobar vein
- renal vein
What are the two components of the digestive system?
- Gastro-intestinal tract = GI tract
- Accessory organs
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?
- Salivary glands
What are the GI tract organs?
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
What are the functions of the digestive system?
- Mechanical digestive
- Chemical digestive
- Stores fat
- Absorption of nutrients
- Re-absorption of nutrients
- Compaction of waste
What is mechanical digestion in the digestive system?
Breakdown of food to smaller size without chemical change
Where is the storage of food located?
Where does absorption of nutrients occur in the digestive system?
Primarily in the small intestine with some activity in the stomach
Where does the compaction of waste and reabsorption of water occur in the digestive system?
What is the pharynx?
tubular GI structure from nasal cavity to larynx
Where is the nasopharynx located?
From the internal nares to the oropharynx
What does the nasopharynx contains?
What is peristalsis?
The sequential contraction of smooth muscle that moves a bolus toward the stomach
What is a bolus?
a swallowed piece of food or other object
Is the proximal or distal portion under voluntary control?
What is located in oropharynx?
palatine and tonsils
What does the epiglottis do?
Covers the glottis during swallowing
What does the cardiac sphincter control?
controls the passage from the esophagus into the stomach and the sphincter muscles normally limit passage to one direction
What does the pyloric sphincter control?
Controls the passage from the stomach into the duodenum (small intestine)
What the is superior part of the stomach?
What portion in the stomach is inferior to the fundus and superior to the pylorus?
What is the inferior part of the stomach?
What does the body of the stomach consist of?
Cardia and Pylorus
What is the greater curvature?
The curved surface of the lateral part of the stomach
What is the lesser curvature?
The curved surface of the medial part of the stomach
What does the lesser omentum do?
Holds stomach to liver and it is a dorsal body wall
What does the greater omentum do?
- Stores fat
- Protects from trauma
What does the parotid salivary gland produce?
Produces salivary amylase to digest starch
What are the four main functions of the stomach?
- Mechanical digestion
- Chemical digestion of protein
- Storage of food
- Limited absorption
What does the pancreas do?
Produces the pancreatic amylase for the breakdown of carbohydrates (starch)
What type of gland is the pancreas?
- It is a endocrine and exocrine gland
- Endocrine function is producing insulin and glucagon
What is the biggest gland in the body?
What uses the most energy of the resting body?
What are the functions of the liver?
- Detoxification of the blood
- Breakdown of RBCs
- Production of bile for use in fat emulsification (bile exits via the Hepatic Duct)
- Regulation of body temperature
- Storage of glucose as glycogen
Bile exits via what?
The production of what is used in fat emulsification?
What two ducts unite to form the common bile duct?
Cystic and hepatic ducts
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Stores bile that is produced by the liver
What duct does the gall bladder empty the bile?
What duct delivers pancreatic amylase to the ampula of vader?
What is the principle site of digestion and absorption?
What organ has plicate circulares?
What increases absorption in the small intestines?
Villi on the place circulares
True or false All classes of food are digested or emulsified in the small intestines
What are the three divisions of the small intestines?
What is the proximal end of the small intestine?
What organ is located in the curve of the duodenum?
Where does the duodenum begin?
At the pyloric sphincter of the stomach
Where does the ileum terminate?
At the ileocecal valve
What does the ileocecal valve do?
Regulate passage from the ileum (small intestine) into the cecum (large intestine)
What is the ileocecal valve?
A sphincter muscle valve that separates the small intestine and the large intestine.
What connects the pharynx and stomach?
What are the functions of large intestines (colon)?
- Reabsorption of waste
- Compaction of waste
What are the segments of the large intestines (colon)? (proximal to distal)
- Ascending colon
- transverse colon
- descending colon
- sigmoid colon
What is haustra?
Pouches of the colon (small intestine) due to differential contraction of the teniae coli
What are the three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon?
What is the function of teniae coli?
differential contraction of the bands aids in the forward movement of the contents and form haustra
What is the lumen?
Cavity within the GI tract
What is the rugae in the stomach?
the large inner folds of the stomach wall that aid in mechanical digestion and movement of digested material.
What are villus?
"cylindrical" projections of the GI tract into the lumen.
What are microvilli?
Epithelium of Tunica muscularis
Villi are only present in what organ?
Small intestine (colon)
What is the tunica mucosa?
Lines the internal surface of the GI tract
What is the innermost layer of the GI tract?
What are the three layers of the tunica mucosa?
- Epithelial lining
- Lamina propria (capillary bed) (connective tissue)
- muscularis mucosa
What type of muscle is muscularis mucosa?
circular smooth muscle
What is the second layer of GI tract?
What type of tissue is the tunica submucosa?
Is the tunica submucosa vascularized?
Yes highly vascularized
What is the tunica muscularis?
It is a double layer of smooth muscle of the GI tract and known as the muscular layer
What are the two layers of smooth muscle of the tunica muscularis and their functions?
- The inner ring of muscle is circular and thus constricts the GI tract.
- The outer layer is longitudinal smooth muscle and by working in conjunction with other areas of the same muscle type can alternately shorten or lengthen (by relaxation) local segments of the GI tract.
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract?
Tunica serosa or Adventita
What is the tunica serosa?
Serous membrane that covers and connects small intestine
Which arteries are large vessels?
Elastic arteries are close to which organ?
What are elastic arteries capable of?
Capable of expansion
Where is the vasa vasorum found in?
The wall of an elastic artery
What is the outer layer of vessels?
What is the middle layer of vessels?
What type of muscle tissue is tunica media?
circular smooth muscle
What lines the lumen of vessels?
Tunica interna or tunica intima
Which artery pulses and moves blood?
Arteries carry deoxygenated or oxygenated blood?
Which vessel has the tunica media reduced?
Which vessels have valves?
Which are the smallest vessels?
Which vessels are the site of gas and nutrient exchange?
Capillary only consist of
What are the formed elements of the blood?
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
What is another name for red blood cells?
Which blood cells are enuleate (no nucleus)?
Red blood cells
What is another name of white blood cells?
What are the five white blood cells?
What is the function of neutrophil?
What is the function of eosinophil?
What is the function of basophil?
What is the function of Monocyte?
fight chronic disease
What is the function of lymphocyte?
- "clean up cell"
- capable of diapedesis
Name the granulocytes
Name the agranulocytes
What is another name of platelets?
What are platelets and their function?
shattered blood cells and needed for clotting
What are the non-formed elements of blood?
- Serum (sera)
What is plasma?
blood without formed elements and fibrinogen is present
What is serum (sera)?
Plasma without fibrinogen
What does the falciform ligament do?
Holds liver to diagram
Where is the heart located?
What serous membrane connects the small intestine to itself and the dorsal body wall?
What serous membrane connects large intestine to itself and the dorsal wall?
What are the layers of the pleural cavity?
- Parietal pleura
- Visceral pleura
What does the visceral pleura cover?
It is a serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung
What does the parietal pleura line?
parietal pleura is the outer membrane which is attached to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity
What is the space between the visceral and parietal pleura called?
What does the visceral peritoneum cover?
Covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs
What does the parental peritoneum line?
lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
What does the visceral pericardium do?
Lines the heart and it is the inner layer
What is the outer layer that covers the heart?
What does the broad ligament do?
Attaches ovary + ovaduct to body wall
What does the the round ligament do?
Attaches uterus, vagina and bladder to body wall
Do arteries have valves?
Do veins have valves?
What type of blood do arteries carry?
What type of blood do veins carry?
Where do arteries carry the blood?
Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the blood
Where do veins carry the blood?
Veins carry blood from the rest of the body back to the heart