Chapter 10 viruses

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Microbiology
Chapter 10
used 9th edition book
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1

Viruses

infectious agents that are too small to be seen with a light microscope and that are not cells

2

Capsid

are a nucleic acid core, and a surrounding protein coat

3

Envelope

surrounding lipid bilayer membrane

4

Virion

Complete virus particle, including the envelope, if it has one

5

Genome

genetic information

6

Capsomeres

protein subunit that each capsid is composed of

7

Enveloped Virus

usually has bilayer membrane outside of capsid

8

Naked

not enveloped

9

nucleocapsid

comprises the viral genome together with the capsi

10

Spikes

extend from viral envelope (some have some do not)

11

Host Range

spectrum of hosts that a virus can infect

12

Viral Specificity

specific kinds of cells a virus can infect

13

+ strand (RNA)

translate immediately

14

- strand (RNA)

converted to +RNA or DNA first

15

Picornaviridae (RNA virus)

Enterovirus,

Hepatovirus,

Rhinovirus+ strandSmall,

naked

16

Togaviridae (RNA virus)

Rubella virus+

strandSmall,

enveloped

17

Flaviviridae (RNA virus)

+ strandSmall,

enveloped

18

Retroviridae (RNA Virus)

HIV, HTLV

+ strand

Enveloped

Reverse transcriptase

19

Paramyxoviridae (RNA Virus)

-strand

Enveloped

mumps, measles, viral pneumonia

20

Rhabdoviridae (RNA virus)

- strand

Enveloped

Human rabies

21

Orthomyxoviridae (RNA virus)

-strand

Enveloped

Influenza A, B

A cross species

B humans

22

Filoviridae (RNA virus)

-strand

Enveloped

Ebola, Marburg

23

Bunyaviridae (RNA virus)

-strand

Enveloped

Hantavirus

24

Arenaviridae (RNA virus)

- strand

Enveloped

Lassa Fever

25

Reoviridae (RNA virus)

ds RNA

naked

Rotavirus

26

Adenoviridae (DNA virus)

Naked

Acute S/S

More than 80 types

27

Herpesviridae (DNA Virus)

Enveloped

Simplex:oral and genital

Cytomegalovirus: birth defects

Roselovirus:Roseola

Lymphocryptovirus : Mono, Burkitt’s lymphoma

Varicellovirus:chicken pox, shingles

28

Poxviridae (DNA virus)

Enveloped

Small pox

29

Papovaviridae (DNA Virus)

naked

Papillomavirus

30

Hepadnaviridae (DNA virus)

enveloped

Hepatitis B

31

Parvoviridae (DNA virus)

Naked, ssDNA

Fifth Disease

32

Adsorption

the attachment of viruses to host cells.

33

Penetration

the entry of virions (or their genome) into host cells.

34

Synthesis

the synthesis of new nucleic acid molecules, capsid proteins, and other viral components within host cells while using the metabolic machinery of those cells.

35

Maturation

the assembly of newly synthesized viral components into complete virions

36

Release

the departure of new virions from host cells. Release generally, but not always, kills (lyses) host cells

37

Genome function

Carries the genetic information necessary for replication of new phage particles

38

Tail sheath Function

Retracts so that the genome can move from the head into the host cell’s cytoplasm

39

Plate and Tail Fibers Function

Attach phage to specific receptor sites on the cell wall of a susceptible host bacterium

40

Primary cell cultures

come directly from the animal and are not subcultured. The younger the source animal, the longer the cells will survive in culture

41

A continuous cell line culture

consists of cells that will reproduce for an extended number of generations

42

satellite viruses

reproduction “revolves around” a helper virus.

43

Viroid

an infectious RNA particle smaller than a virus

44

Prion

1.resistant to inactivation by heating, will inactivate viruses.

2. Prion infection is not sensitive to radiation treatment that damages virus genomes.

3. not destroyed by enzymes that digest DNA or RNA.

4. Prions are sensitive to protein denaturing agents, such as phenol and urea.

5. Prions have direct pairing of amino acids.

45

Oncogenes

viral genes that cause host cells to divide uncontrollably

46

Proto-oncogenes

normal genes that, when under the control of a virus, act as oncogenes, causing uncontrolled cell division.

47

DNA tumor viruses

contain viral genes whose protein products disrupt the activities of normal host cell proteins that control cell division

48

RNA tumor viruses

contain viral genes used for neoplastic transformation and viral replication