Sports Psychology ch 7
How are group and team dynamics a dual relationship?
Because the individual influences the group, and the group influences the individual. For example, we used the group roles in class when planning the vacation trip.
Why should we study groups?
Because we are social beings and it is an environment that sport psychologists can enhance to bring success. Pat Riley says that teamwork is the essence of life, and MJ says talent wins games, but teamwork wins championships
What is the SP definition of groups and what are the 4 characteristics/distinct factors
2 or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other.
1. A collective sense of identity
2. Distinctive roles
3. Structured modes of communication
4. Group norms
Difference between a group and a team, and what is the one similarity that they have?
Both have a mutual reaction or mutual goal.
What are the four phases of team and group development and how is it a dynamic process
This is dynamic because it can start over with changes to the team, situational changes like an injury, etc.
What is forming
Team members get to know each other and they develop and test their relationships and roles
What is storming and what role occurs during this stage
Takes place when there is a rebellion against the leaders or their roles, some conflict where personalities are clashing. Role clarity occurs and this leads to a low team effectiveness
What is norming and what role occurs during this stage
You settle into a routine and the hostility from storming is replaced by solidarity and cooperation. Start to accept roles, chemistry kicks in. Role acceptance occurs and this is when the improvement begins
What is the performing phase
You band together and channel your energy for the success of the team.
What can be done to increase effectiveness of a team
Proximity, distinctiveness, fairness, and social support.
What is distinctiveness
The more different you feel from other groups/teams
Fairness, or lack of (rude coach, manager) can bring a group together
More effective when there is more social support
Productivity of the team can be calculated by groups potential productivity (best possible performance) minus any losses (motivational/coordination losses)
Individual abilities don't add up to total group performance (pulling rope)
Psychological definition for why people don't try as hard.
Why is there a loss of motivation
Sucker effect, minimizing strategy, allocation strategy
Teammates aren't motivated and you don't want to pick up the slack
Your work gets lost in the crowd so it isn't worth the effort
Don't put forth the effort because your teammates will pick up the slack
What can be done about motivation loss
Increase individual pride
Sign off on contributions
Minimize "loafable" situations