Sports Psychology ch 7

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1

How are group and team dynamics a dual relationship?

Because the individual influences the group, and the group influences the individual. For example, we used the group roles in class when planning the vacation trip.

2

Why should we study groups?

Because we are social beings and it is an environment that sport psychologists can enhance to bring success. Pat Riley says that teamwork is the essence of life, and MJ says talent wins games, but teamwork wins championships

3

What is the SP definition of groups and what are the 4 characteristics/distinct factors

2 or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other.

1. A collective sense of identity

2. Distinctive roles

3. Structured modes of communication

4. Group norms

4

Difference between a group and a team, and what is the one similarity that they have?

card image

Both have a mutual reaction or mutual goal.

5

What are the four phases of team and group development and how is it a dynamic process

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

This is dynamic because it can start over with changes to the team, situational changes like an injury, etc.

6

What is forming

Team members get to know each other and they develop and test their relationships and roles

7

What is storming and what role occurs during this stage

Takes place when there is a rebellion against the leaders or their roles, some conflict where personalities are clashing. Role clarity occurs and this leads to a low team effectiveness

8

What is norming and what role occurs during this stage

You settle into a routine and the hostility from storming is replaced by solidarity and cooperation. Start to accept roles, chemistry kicks in. Role acceptance occurs and this is when the improvement begins

9

What is the performing phase

You band together and channel your energy for the success of the team.

10

What can be done to increase effectiveness of a team

Proximity, distinctiveness, fairness, and social support.

11

What is distinctiveness

The more different you feel from other groups/teams

12

Fairness

Fairness, or lack of (rude coach, manager) can bring a group together

13

Social support

More effective when there is more social support

14

Steiner's model

Productivity of the team can be calculated by groups potential productivity (best possible performance) minus any losses (motivational/coordination losses)

15

Ringelmann effect

Individual abilities don't add up to total group performance (pulling rope)

16

Social loafing

Psychological definition for why people don't try as hard.

17

Why is there a loss of motivation

Sucker effect, minimizing strategy, allocation strategy

18

Sucker effect

Teammates aren't motivated and you don't want to pick up the slack

19

Minimizing strategy

Your work gets lost in the crowd so it isn't worth the effort

20

Allocation strategy

Don't put forth the effort because your teammates will pick up the slack

21

What can be done about motivation loss

Increase individual pride

Sign off on contributions

Minimize "loafable" situations