4. Digestive system - Pancreas, liver & gallbladder

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1

What does digestion and absorption in the small intestine depend on

Heavily dependent on secretions from the pancreas, liver and gallbladder

2

Location of pancreas

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  • Oblong gland located posterior to the stomach in the retroperitoneal space.
  • Consists of a head, body and tail
  • Connected to duodenum by pancreatic duct & accessory duct
3

Function of pancreas

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secretes pancreatic juice: water, salts, enzymes and Sodium bicarbonate

4

The body's largest gland & 2nd larges organ

Liver

5

What does the liver look like

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  • 2 main lobes, right and left
  • divided by the falciform ligament
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Digestive function of the liver

  • synthesis, transformation and storage of proteins, carbs and fats
  • detoxification, modification and excretion of a variety of exogenous and endogenous substances
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Non-digestive function of the liver

  • Phagocytosis of old or worn-out cells
  • Modifying vitamin D to its active form
  • Storage of vitamins
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Components of the liver

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  • Hepatocytes
  • Bile Canaliculi
  • Hepatic sinusoids
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Hepatocytes

Component of the liver:

  • Major functional cells
  • Make up 80% liver volume
  • Secretes bile
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Bile Canaliculi

Component of the liver:

  • Small ducts that collect bile
11

Hepatic sinusoids

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Component of the liver:

  • highly permeable blood capillaries that receive oxygenated blood
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Liver blood supply

  • Venus blood from hepatic portal vein
  • Arterial blood from hepatic artery
    • blood mixture passes through hepatic sinusoids where oxygen, nutrients and toxins are taken up by the hepatocytes
    • then directed towards the central vein
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Path of blood in hepatic sinusoid

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Oxygenated blood from hepatic artery and Nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from hepatic portal vein mixture:

  • Liver sinusoids
  • Central vein
  • hepatic vein
  • inferior vena cava
  • right atrium of heart
14

Bile

  • Used in Chemical digestion
  • An excretory product that help emulsify fats for the watery environment of the small intestine digestive juices
15

Contents of Bile

Excretory product and digestive secretion ontains:

  • water
  • bile
  • salts
  • cholesterol
  • a phospholipid
  • ions
  • bile pigments
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Use of bile salts

Used in small intestine for the emulsification and absorption of lipids

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Bilirubin

dark pigment in bile - comes from the phagocytosis of old red blood cells

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R&L hepatic ducts

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  • where the bile that is secreted into the canaliculi (located between the hepatocytes) exits the liver
  • merges into the common hepatic duct
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Common hepatic duct

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Joins the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct

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Common bile duct (CBD)

Where the cystic duct from the gallbladder and the common hepatic duct from the liver join.

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Hepatopancreatic ampulla

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Formed from the CBD (common bile duct) and the pancreatic duct by the duodenum

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Duodenal papilla

Pierces the intestinal mucosa to deliver its contents

23

Where is bile stored between meals

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The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampula closes and bile backs up and is stored in the gallbladder

24

Ducts that carry bile from liver to common bile duct towards the duodenum

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  • right hepatic duct
  • left hepatic duct
  • common hepatic duct
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Duct that carries bile from gallbladder to common bile duct towards duodenum

Cystic duct

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Duct that carries pancreatic juice from pancreas towards duodenum

Pancreatic duct