Tissues

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1

Tissue

definition

groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function

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4 Types of Tissues

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous

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Summarized role of 4 Tissues

  1. Epithelial covers.
  2. Connective supports.
  3. Muscle produces movement.
  4. Nervous controls.
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Ephithelial

definition

sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity; forms boudaries between different environments.

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Epithelial

functions

protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, and sensory reception

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Epithelial:

2 Forms

  1. Covering and lining epilthelium
  2. Glandular Epithelium
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Polarity of Epithelial

All epithelia have an apical (upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or cavity of internal organ) and basal surface which differ in structure/function

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Basal Lamina

adjacent to basal surface of epithelium; thin supporting sheet that acts as a selective filter and scaffolding along which epithelial cells can migrate to repair a wound

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Epithelium characteristics

polarity, specialized contacts (tight junctions and desmosomes), supported by connective tissue, avascular but innervated, highly regenerative

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simple epitheilia

consist of a single cell layer; involved in absorption, secretion, and filtration

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stratified epithelia

composed of two or more cell layers; common in high-abrasion areas for protection

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Shapes of Epithelium

  • squamous
  • cuboidal
  • columnar
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Cuboidal

boxlike, approximately tall as they are wide, with spherical nucleus

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Columnar

tall and column shaped, with elongated nucleus

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Stratefied means

has multiple layers of cells

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Single means

has only one layer of cells

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Squamous

flattened and scale-like epithelium, with flattened nucleus

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

allows materials to pass by diffusion and filtration; secretes lubricating substances in serosae; EXAMPLE: air sacs of lungs

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

secretion and absorbtion; EXAMPLE: ducts and secretory portions of small glands, kidney tubutles

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

(may contain goblet cells) Absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances, ciliated type propels mucus; EXAMPLE: lines most of the digestrive tract

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Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

secrete substances, particularly mucus (propelled by cilia); EXAMPLE: lines trachea

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion; EXAMPLE: lines mouth

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Transitional Epithelium

Stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ; EXAMPLE: lines bladder

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Connective Tissue Classes:

  1. connective tissue proper
  2. cartilage
  3. bone
  4. blood
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Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue

  • Comes from Mesenchyme embrionic tissue
  • degrees of vascularity: some has rich blood supply, others avascular
  • extracellular matrix: largely nonlinving , can bear weight, withstand tension, and endure trauma
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Structural Elements of Connective Tissue

  • ground substance
  • fibers
  • cells
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Connective Tissue Proper: 4 features

  • functions as binding tissue
  • resists mechanical stress (tension)
  • provides reservoir for water and salts
  • fat storage
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2 Types of Connective Tissue Proper

Loose and Dense

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3 loose connective tissue types:

  1. areolar
  2. adipose
  3. reticular
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3 dense connective tissue types:

  1. regular
  2. irregular
  3. elastic
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Cartilage: 3 Types

  1. hyaine
  2. elastic
  3. fibrocartilage
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Cartilage 2 features:

  • resists compression because of large amounts of water held in matrix
  • functions to cushion and support body structures
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2 Forms of Bone Tissue

  1. Compact
  2. Spongy
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2 Bone Tissue Features:

  • hard tissue that resists both compression and tension
  • functions in support
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Blood types:

  • red blood cells
  • white blood cells
  • platelets
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3 Features of Blood:

fluid tissue

matrix is plasma

functions to carry O2 and CO2, nutrients, wastes and other substances (hormones)

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Areolar

CT Proper

wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages eat bacteria; plays an important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid

EXAMPLE: forms lamina propria of mucous membranes

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Adipose

CT Proper

provides reserve food fuel; insulates; supports and protects organs

EXAMPLE: breast tissue

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Reticular

CT Proper

form stroma that supports other cell types

EXAMPLE: bone marrow, mast cells

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Dense Regular

CT Proper

attaches muscles to bones or muscles, attaches bones to bones; withstands stress from one direction

EXAMPLE: Tendons, ligaments

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Dense Irregular

CT Proper

Withstands tension from many directions, provides structural strength

EXAMPLE: dermis of skin, submucosa of digestive tract

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Elastic

CT Proper

allows tissue to recoil after stretching; maintains pulsing flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs

EXAMPLE: walls of large arteries

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Hyaline

Cartilage

supports and reinforces; serves as resilient cushion; resists compressive stress

EXAMPLE: cartilage of the nose

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Elastic

Cartilage

maintains shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility

EXAMPLE: external ear

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Fibrocartilage

Tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock

EXAMPLE: Discs of knee joint

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Bone

supports and protects; provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow is site for hematopoiesis

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Blood

transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances. Contained within blood vessels

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Muscle Tissues

Description

highly cellular, well-vascularized, responsible for most types of body movement

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Muscle

Types

  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth
  • Nervous
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Skeletal muscle

voluntary movement; locomtion; voluntary control

EXAMPLE: in skeletal muscles attached to bones

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Cardiac muscle

Contracts, propelling blood into ciculation, involuntary

EXAMPLE: walls of heart

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Smooth muscle

propels substances or objects along internal passageways; involuntary

EXAMPLE: walls of hollow organs IE digestive tract

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Nervous Tissue

transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to muscles and glands

EXAMPLE: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves

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Cutaneous membrane:

made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis); exposed to air and is a dry membrane

(skin)

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Serous membrane:

moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities; made of Simple Squamous Epithelium resting on areolar tissue; secrete serous fluid

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Steps of Tissue Repair:

  • regeneration or fibrosis
  • inflammation
  • organization restores blood supply
  • regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair
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Regeneration

replaces destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue

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fibrosis

dense connective tissue proliferates to form scar tissue

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Inflamation

  • severed blood vessels bleed
  • inflamatory chemicals relaeased by injured cells
  • local blood vessels become more permeable allowing more WBC, Fluid, clotting proteins, plasma to injured area
  • clotting occurs
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Organization restores blood supply

  • clot is replaced by granulation tissue (restores vascular supply)
  • fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to bridge gap
  • macrophages eat dead and dying cells, and other debris
  • surface epithelial cells multiply and migrate over granulation tissue
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regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair

  • fibrosed area matures and contracts
  • epithelium thickens
  • fully regeneration epithelium with an underlying area of scar tissue results