Anatomy and Physiolgy Exam 2 Flashcards


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Respiratory System, Digestive System, Cardiovascular Function
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1

What does the term "respiration" refer to?

-Pulmonary Ventilation
-External Respiration
-Internal Respiration

2

What are the 4 functions of the respiratory system discussed in class?

1. Provide oxygen to blood and remove carbon dioxide
2. Enable sound production
3. Increase Intra-abdominal pressure
4. Protective and Reflexive Non-breathing air movements (coughing and sneezing)

3

Which structures are part of the conducting division?

From the nose/mouth to terminal bronchioles

4

Which are part of the respiratory division?

Respiratory bronchioles to alveoli

5

Nasal Septum's components?

perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, vomer bone, and septal cartilage

6

what are nasal vibrissae?

hairs in the nasal vestibule. they trap debris

7

nasal conchae

superior and middle are ethmoid bone, inferior conchae is its own bone.

8

what structures drain into the nasal cavity?

paranasal sinuses (frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and maxillary)

9

What are the three functions of the nasal cavity we discussed in class?

1. warm, cleanse, and moisten air
2. smell
3. resonating chamber for speech

10

What are the functions of the mucous membrane?

The moist ET traps debris/particles. It has enzymes to kill bacteria. It also humidifies and warms air.

11

Where is the pharynx? What does it do?

IT connects the nasal cavity to the larynx, and connects the oral cavity to the esophagus. It conveys air to the larynx.

12

What are the three parts of the pharynx, and where are they located?

1. nasopharynx- superior to soft palate
2. oropharynx- posterior to OC, inferior to soft palate
3. laryngopharynx- esophagus or larynx- ends at C6

13

In what part of the pharynx are the:
a. pharyngeal tonsils
b. lingual tonsils
c. orifice of auditory tube
d. palitine tonsils
e. uvula

a. nasopharynx
b. oropharynx
c. nasopharynx
d. lateral walls of oropharynx
e. oropharynx

14

what is the larynx? where can you find it? what are the functions of the larynx?

Voice box. It is the passageway between laryngopharynx to trachea. It prevents food from entering lower respiratory system. It permits air flow.

15

What are the three unpaired cartilages of the larynx? Which one is the :
a. largest
b. laryngeal prominence
c. anterior attachment site for vocal cords
d. closes glottis
e. most inferior
f. most superior

thyroid, epiglottis, cricoid.
a. thyroid
b. thyroid
c. thyroid
d. epiglottis.
e. cricoid
f. epiglottis

16

the paired cartilage?

arytenoid cartilage. attaches vocal cords posteriorly. sits ontop of cricoid cartilage

17

what are the vocal cords? vestibular folds? vocal foldS?

They are bands of CT from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilage. Vestibular folds are supportive tissue, and are the "false vocal cords". Vocal folds are used in sound production and are the "true vocal cords"

18

How is sound produced by true vocal cords? How is it modified?

Air travels through glottis, and vibrates true vocal cords. They can be tightened or loosened by arytenoid cartilage twisting. It is modified using tongue, lips and palate.

19

What is the trachea

Windpipe. It is a rigid tube from neck to mediastinum. It is formed by C-shaped rings of cartilage. Lined with mucosa

20

Branching pattern of bronchial tree?

From largest to smallest:
Primary bronchus- one for each lung
Secondary bronchus- one for each LOBE
tertiary bronchus- one for each bronchiopulmonary segment

21

If you inhale a foreign object, which bronchus will it end up in?

right, because it's bigger and more vertical.

22

How are bronchioles different from bronchi?

They have little to no cartilage, and more smooth muscles (important in dilation)

23

Where does gas exchange take place in lungs?

alveolar sacs

24

Where are lungs located? what are the surfaces?

Lungs lie against rib cage, superior to clavicle to diaphragm.
mediastinal surface, inferior surface, apex, and costal surface

25

how does L differ from R lung?
a. size
b. number of lobes
c. number of fissures
d. number of segments
e. presence of cardiac notch

a. L is smaller
b. L has 2 R has 3
c. L has 1 R has 2
d. L has 8 or 9, R has 10
e. L has notch. (medial side)

26

Pulmonary Ventilaton

movement of air in and out of lungs. has 2 phases:
1. inspiration
2. expiration

27

how does pulmonary respiration work? what happens to size of thorax during each phase?

air goes down the pressure gradient.
During inspiration: thorax size increases
Expiration: size decreases

28

what muscles are involved in pulmonary respiration?

diaphragm( contracts on inspiration) and external intercostals.

Expiration does not require muscle contraction

29

What is dead space?

only 2/3 of air gets to the alveoli, the air in the rest of the lungs is the dead space (150 mL)

30

Tidal volume

volume in and out in one cycle

31

inspiratory reserve volume

amount you can inspire beyond tidal volume

32

expiratory reserve volume

amount you can expel beyond tidal volume

33

residual volume

air still in lungs

34

vital capacity

VC= TV + ERV + IRV

35

total lung capacity

Residual plus VC

36

What causes the movement of respieratory gases in/out of the capillaries/ alveoli/ cells?

diffusion (down chemical gradient)

37

What is internal respiration? What is the direction of movement of oxygen?

Between blood and tissues. Oxygen goes to the tissues, Co2 to the blood

38

external respiration

between blood and alveoli
O2 to the blood, Co2 to the lungs

39

what happens to most of the CO2 that enters the blood? Where does the rest end up?

7% goes in blood plasma
23% binds to Hb in RBC
70% turns into H2CO3 in RBC

40

what is the formula for bicarbonate ion formation during internal respiration? what happens to it once it is formed?

CO2 + H20 ---> H2CO3--->H+ + HCO3-

ionization occurs

41

What happens to the H+ formed during the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate ions?

it binds to available Hb in RBC.
The pH doesnt get lower, because low cell pH enhances O2 release from Hb, which allows the uptake of H+ by Hb (H+ lowers pH)

42

how is co2 released from blood during external respiration?

Co2 in plasma diffuses
unbinding from Hb---> diffusion
as oxygen binds, H+ unbinds from Hb reforming bicarbonate, reversing the equation, which leads to more diffusion.

43

What are three mechanisms used by the body for the removal of H+ from body fluids?

1. buffer systems
2. exhalation of CO2
3. excretion of H+ (urination)

44

hwo does the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system maintain stable blood pH?

low pH is HIGH H+ concentration

H2CO3-----> H+ + HCO3- (reversible)

45

what happens to blood pH during slow, shallow breathing?

not exhaling CO2, which will increase the H + and HCO3- concentration. will lower pH

46

what happens during fast, deep breathing?

more Co2 flushed out, lowers H+, raises pH

47

Where are the respiratory control centers of the brain?

2 in medulla - sets rhythm
1 in pons- alters the rhythm

48

what is the inflation reflex? what receptors are involved?

Stretch receptors in the lungs respond to protect lungs from overinflating. VIA VAGUS.

49

where can you find peripheral chemoreceptors? central chemoreceptors? what are they sensitive to?

peripheral are in the aortic arch and carotid sinus
central are in the medulla.

sensitive to chemical changes (CO2 and O2 and H+)

50

What is the most powerful effect on respiratory activity?

CO2 levels

51

Which higher brain center mediates changes due to emotion and body temp changes?

hypothalamus

52

which higher brain center is used for voluntary respiratory control?

cerebral cortex

53

What other receptors influence respiration

irritant (VAGUS)
in lungs- constrict bronchioles
in trachea- cough
in nasal cavity- sneeze

54

why will the heart continue beating even if all nerve connections are severed

it has intrinsic control

55

sequence of excitation of heart

SA node --> AV node --> AV Bundle --> Branches---> Purkinjie Fibers

56

where is electrical impulse delayed? why?

in AV node (.1 s) this is to allow atria to contract before ventricles

57

why is it important that the wave of ventricular depolarization runs up superiorly from apex?

so blood pumps up...

58

where is the autonomic control center for the heart?

medulla

59

what are the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation on heart rate?

Sympathetic increases HR, Parasympathetic decreases HR
parasympathetic has dominant influence over heart during rest

60

what other extrinsic factrs influence heart rate?

hormones, ionic imbalance, age, sex, regular exercise

61

What is systole and diastole

systole- chamber of heart contracting
diastole- chamber of heart relaxing and filling with blood

62

the cardiac cycle

sequence of events in one heart beat.
about .8 s

(.3 S, .5 D)

63

what are the heart sounds?

S1- Av valves closing (left then right)
S2- Semilunar valves closing (left then right)
actually 4 sounds

heart sounds can be used to recognize an enlarged heart, because you can trace where heart is via the oblique heart sounds.

64

What is cardiac output? How is it related to HR and SV?

CO is the amount of blood pumped out of the LV in one minute. the faster the HR, more CO. higher SV, higher CO
CO= SV * HR

65

what is SV?

stroke volme. Volume of blood pumped out of LV in each beat.

66

EDV? ESV?

SV= EDV + ESV

EDV is the amount of blood in ventricle after diastole
ESV is the amount of blood in ventricle after systole

67

why does resting heart rate decline as a result of CV conditioning?

when stroke volume increases, HR will decrease

68

The three layers of a blood vessel

Tunica externa-collagen
tunica media- SM fibers and elastic fibers
tunica interna- ET

69

Veins vs. Arteries?
a. thickness of wall
b. size of lumen
c. muscularity
d. cross-sectional shape
e. BP

a. arteries are thicker
b. veins have larger lumen
c. arteries are more muscular
d. arteries are rounded in X section
veins are collapsed
e. BP in A are higher

70

what are the two types of arteries? how do they differ?

Elastic and muscular.
Elastic- 1.5 cm
muscular- 6.0 mm
muscular- few elastic cells
E has larger lumen

71

What are arterioles?

Very small arteries. 1 or 2 cell layers thick. Regulate blood flow into capillaries (autoregulation)

72

What is artherosclerosis? atheroma? thrombosis?

Atherosclerosis is the hardening of an artery. atheroma is plaque buildup. thrombosis is a clot.

73

what are capillaries?

they are the narrowest BV's. they are one cell thick, have no tunica media or tunica externa. Gas exchange takes place here.

74

What is a capillary bed

system of capillaries

75

thouroughfare channel

capillaries direct route from artery to vein

76

true capillary

gas exchange happens here

77

what muscles of capillary bed determines amount of blood flowing through it?

precapillary sphincters

78

Venous vessels ? 2

venules - smaller, union of capillaries
veins- 3 layers present

79

blood pressure is low in veins. what mechanism provides most of the force necessary to return blood to heart?

skeletal muscle pumps w/ venous valves. contracting muscles squeeze blood up veins, and valves prevent backflow.
Stretched out veins and unfunctionable- varicose veins

80

what are hemorrhoids?

varicose vain in rectum

81

what is blood pressure?

it is the force of blood against the walls of arteries. it decreases with distance from heart.

82

Blood Flow

F =(delta P)/resistance

83

what is the pressure gradient between two points?

difference in pressure, higher the difference the greater the blood flow.

84

what is resistance?

what must be overcome to push blood through the system

85

what are factors that influence resistance?

Blood viscosity
BV length (longer is more resistance)
BV diameter- most important

86

peripheral resistance ?

arteries on periphery determine blood flow...bv away from heart have greatest effect on resistance

87

what is pulse pressure?

SP-DP. smaller further away from the heart

88

what accounts for the drop in pulse pressure in arteries further away from heart?

elastic arteries are close to heart, and bounce back during diastole like a pump. down the line, they are less elastic.

89

what is MAP?

mean arterial pressure.
DP+ PP/3

90

what are the three main influences on MAP?

Cardiac output- higher CO- higher BP
Blood Volume- more fluid, more pressure
Peripheral resistance- more resistance, higher BP

91

what is the cardiovascular center?

area of medulla oblongotta controls CV activity

92

are vasomotors parasympathetic, sympathetic, or both?

SYMPATHETIC ONLY

93

what do vasomotor fibers control?

alters the diameter of the BV it innervates. (tunica media of vessel)
cause vasoconstriction except to cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle

94

3 major types of input to cardiovascular center

chemical
pressure
higher brain centers (medulla)

95

what higher brain structure mediates the cardiovascular response to exercise and changes in body temp?

brain stem

96

what hormones are released by adrenal medulla?

epinephrine and norepinephrine. they increase heart rate. and vasoconstrict, except in cardiac and skeletal muscles

97

atrial naturietic peptide

target: arterioles and kidney
vasoconstriction and inhibition of ADH and aldosterone
lowers BP

98

angiotensin II

plasma protein
target: arterioles
vasoconstriction and release of ADH
raises BP

99

Aldosterone

target: kidneys
increase water and Nacl retention. Raises blood volume which raises blood pressure

100

ADH

target: kidneys
increases water retention
raises BP

101

what is autoregulation?

dilation/constriction of bv's leading totissues, based on need.

102

what is the effect of nitric oxide
? histamine?

NO- dilation
histamine-dilation

103

what is myogenic response?

a response of vascular smooth muscle cells to stretch.
when bp increases and bv distend, vasoconstriction will occur.

stretch-activated ion channel.

104

what are the physical boundaries of the oral cavity>

front- labia
sides- cheeks (buccinator)
top- palate
bottom- floor of mouth
back- muscular folds( palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches)

105

what three actions take place in oral cavity

ingestion, taste, digestion
bolus formation

106

4 types of teeth

incisors, canines, premolars, molars
adults 2:1:2:2 per quadrant
kids 2:1:2

107

alveolus

tooth socket

108

gingiva

gums over alveolar bone

109

crown

above gingiva

110

root

below gingiva

111

enamel

highly mineralized bone

112

cementum

covers root(like bone)

113

periodontal ligament

connects root to alveolar bone

114

dentin

body of tooth

115

pulp chamber

chamber of tooth for nerves and BV

116

root canal

pathway for nerves and BV to get to pulp chamber

117

what part of the tongue is in the oral cavity? and what part is in the oropharynx?

the oral cavity houses the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
the oropharynx holds the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
the sulcus terminalis separates the two regions

118

what are the functions of the tongue?

speech, move food, voluntary swallowing, taste

119

what are papillae?

bumps on tongue

120

what are the 3 major salivary glands/ducts?

sublingual-mini ducts under tongue
submandibular- subm duct, drains into mandibular body
parotid- largest, by ear parotid duct to 2nd molar

121

purpose of pharynx/esophagus with respect to digestive system

pharynx- convey bolus to esophagus
esophagus- convey bolus stomach

122

what parts of pharynx that food goes through?

oropharynx and laryngopharynx

123

three muscles that make up pharynx walls?>

"constrictor" superior, middle, inferior. they squeeze food down. they are skeletal muscles (voluntary)

124

how does food get pushed down esophagus?

peristalsis

125

what is gastroesophageal sphincteR?

s.m. junction between stomach and esophagus. opens when food is present on esophageal side.

126

GERD?

gastroesophageal reflux disorder
dysfunctional sphincter, reguritates stomach acid into esophagus.

Hiatal hernia, eating/drinking to excess, running, obesity, pregnancy

127

functions of the stomach

1.temporary storage of bolus
2. digestion
3. formation of chyme
4. move chyme to S.I.

128

what side of body is the stomach on

upper left quadrant

129

gastric rugae

mucosa of the stomach is folded when empty. stomach can then be further stretched

130

what sphincter does chyme pass through to get to small intestine?

pyloric sphincter

131

what is the major digestive enzyme of gastric juice?

pepsin- digestion of proteins. activated by HCl

132

what hormone is released when food arrives at stomach?

gastrin- stimulates further production of gastric juice

133

functions of small intestine?

1.receive chyme from stomach
2. major site of digestion
3. site of nutrient absorption
4. transport waste to large intestine.

134

folds, villi, microvilli

they increase surface area of the mucosa. villi contain ET cells which have microvilli on them.

135

three regions of the small intestine

duodenum- no mesentery
jejunem- 2.5 m, suspended by mesentery
ileum- 3.5 m, suspended by mesentery

136

how does the pH of the SI compare to stomach

pH is higher- mucosa secretes alkaline substance

137

most absorption takes place in

jejunem- it is highly folded compared to the other two regions

138

the duodenum

receives secretions from the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. the name of the duct they all come from hepatopancreatic ampulla. formed by common bile duct and main pancreatic duct.

139

valve between SI and LI

ileocecal

140

why is it called the large intestine?

it has a larger lumen

141

where in the abdomen does the LI start

lower right quadrant. ends at the anus

142

what does the LI do?

resorption of water and electrolytes

143

why does one produce more intestinal gas as a result of eating more indigestible carbohydrates

bacteria in the LI will eat the leftover carbs, their waste is intestinal gas

144

pathway through LI

cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
sigmoid colon
rectum

145

what is the name for that part of the rectum located inferior to the pelvic diaphragm?

anal canal

146

how many lobes does the liver have?

4. left, right, caudate and quadrate

147

what is the portal region of the liver

everything passes through it
portal vein, hepatic artery, nerves, bv, hepatic ducts

148

functions of liver

1.synthesis and storage of vitamins
2. synthesis and storage of glycogen
3. synthesis of plasma proteins
4. synthesis of cholesterol
5. destruct old damaged rbcs
6. detox center
7. maintain normal nutrient levels
8. produce bile

149

two major functions of pancreas

endocrine- insulin and glucagon
exocrine- pancreatic juice to p. duct

150

enzymes found in pancreatic juice?

pancreatic amylase- carb digestion
pancreatic lipase- lipid digestion
proteinases- protein digestion

151

secretin

inhibits stomach, stimulates buffer secretion in pancreas

152

cck

cholecystokinin
inhibits stomach, stimulates digestive enzyme secretion of pancreas, stimulates contraction of gall bladder

153

GIP

gastroihibitory peptide
inhibits stomach, stimulates insulin production

154

3 divisions of the gut

foregut, midgut, hindgut- based on embryonic development (placement of vitelline duct)

155

foregut

celiac artery

liver, gall bladder, pancreas

Sympathetic- celiac ganglia
parasympathetic- vagus

156

midgut

superior mesenteric artery
last 1/3 of duodenum to the left colic flexure

sympathetic- sup. mes ganglion
parasympathetic- vagus

157

hindgut

inf. mesenteric artery

left colic flexure to rectum

sympathetic- inferior mesenteric ganglion
parasympathetic- pelvic splanchnic nerve

158

mesentery

bilayer of peritoneum

159

falciform ligament

divides liver int o two lobes (mesentery)

160

two major carbohydrates

starch and glycogen

161

what organs are retroperitoneal

kidneys, pancreas, ascending and descending colon

162

emulsification

big droplets into little droplets

163

lipid digestion

duodenum- already fat globules b/c of hydprophobic nature, bile emulsifies lipids then pancreatic lipase breaks them down

164

lacteals

transfer big things to veins (lymph system) lipid fragments attach to transport proteins

165

four layers of gi tract

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa (two layers):inner(circular) and outer(longitudinal)
serosa (visceral peritoneum)