Altered Somatic and Special Sensory Function

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created 3 years ago by nrharvey
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1

Mechanoreceptors

Function: tactile skin sensation, deep-tissue sensation, hearing, proprioception

merkel cells, ruffini endings, meissner corpuscles, pacinian corpuscle, hair follicle end organ, free nerve endings, cochlear sound receptors

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Photoreceptors

Function: vision

rods, cones

3

Chemorecptors

Function: taste, smell

taste bud receptors, olfactory epithelium receptors

4

Nocieptor

Function: pain

free nerve endings

5

General Somatic Afferent Neurons

Location: wide distribution with branches throughout the body

Sensation: pain, touch, temperature

6

Special Somatic Afferent Neurons

Location: muscle, tendons, and joints

Sensation: position and body movement

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General Visceral Afferent Neurons

Location: visceral structures

Sensation: fullness and discomfort

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First-Order Neurons

communicate sensory information from the periphery to the CNS

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Second-Order Neurons

relay sensory input from reflex networks and sensory pathways directly to the thalamus

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Third-Order Neurons

communicate sensory information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex

11

Thermoreceptors

Location: under the skin

(cold/warmth/pain receptors)

Responsible for transmission of thermal sensation

12

Nociceptive Pain

stimulus is located outside of the nervous system

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Neuropathic Pain

pain originating within the nervous system

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Pattern Pain Theory

nerves transmitting impulses are shared with other senses

15

Specificity Pain Theory

sensations of touch, warmth, cold, and pain involve distinct receptors and pathways unique to the specific sensation

16

Gate Control Pain Theory

peripheral receptors generating impulses along the primary afferent neurons enter the spinal cord in the substantia gelatinosa of the dorsal horn, serving as a gate, regulating the transmission of pain impulses

Stimulation of A beta and alpha inhibitory fibers= gate closes

Stimulation of small pain fibers= gate opens

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Rods

allow for vision in dim light

18

Cones

allow for vision of color and bright light

19

Myopia

Refraction Error

nearsightedness

eye focuses an image in front of the retina due to lens thickness

20

Hyperopia

Refraction Error

farsightedness

eye focuses an image behind the retina which alters transmission of light

21

Astigmatism

Refraction Error

prevents focus; causes blurring

caused by irregular curvature of the cornea or lens

22

Presbyopia

Refraction Error

farsightedness caused by aging

the ciliary muscle and lens stop accommodating for near vision

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Strabismus

Eye Movement Error

lack of coordinated extrinsic eye muscle funciton

"crossed eyes"

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Amblyopia

Eye Movement Error

loss of visual detail

"lazy eye"

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Diplopia

Eye Movement Error

lack of coordination of the extraocular muscles leading to double vision

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Nystagmus

Eye Movement Error

resulting from abnormal function in the brain, labyrinth of the inner ear

27

Conjuctivitis

Protective Eye Structure Error

inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eye

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Viral Conjunctivitis

usually affects only one eye

watery discharge

29

Bacterial Conjunctivitis

starts in on one eye and usually spreads to both eyes

heavy discharge and lash crusting

30

Allergic Conjunctivitis

usually affects both eyes

itching, redness, and excessive tearing

31

Cataracts

Protective Eye Structure Error

clouding of the lens

scattering of the incoming light into the retina

32

Nuclear Cataract

most common type of cataract

forms in the center of the lens

slow progression (years)

33

Cortical Catarct

cataract that forms in the lens cortex

34

Outer Ear

Pinna, external auditory meatus

collects and funnels sound vibrations into the opening of the ear canal

35

Middle Ear

tympanic membrane (eardrum), 3 bones (ossicles): malleus, incus, stapes

located in the air-filled mastoid portion of the temporal bone of the skull and runs to the back of the nose and throat

provides pressure equalization on both sides of the tympanic membrane

36

Inner Ear

outer bony labyrinth (cochlea), inner membranous labyrinth

hearing and balance

37

Otitis Media

infection of middle ear

tender mastoid process

38

Otitis Externa

inflammation or infection of external ear "swimmer's ear"

painful pinna (tug test)

39

Meniere disease

severe vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, nausea

40

Macular Degeneration

loss of the fovea- which is the central portion of the retinal macula

41

Glaucoma

progressive neurodegeneration of the ganglion cells

second leading cause of blindness among the elderly; leading cause of preventable blindness int he US

IOP

Factors: age, black race, DM, eye trauma, long-term steroid use