Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual, Cat Version: Endocrine System notes Flashcards


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1

What does the endocrine system do

It coordinates all of the body systems by the use of hormones produced by endocrine cells

2

What is a hormone

A mediator molecule that is released in one part of the body and regulates its local or a distant environment

3

How do hormones move

Most enter interstitial fluid and then the blood stream.

4

What are the organs in the endocrine system?

PTAPP

Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands.

PTAPP

5

What five cells secrete seven hormones?

STGLC

Somatotroph's, Thryotroph's, Gonadotroph, Lactotroph, and Corticotroph

6

What are autocrine hormones

Local hormones that are secreted and bind to the same cell

7

What are paracrine hormones

Local hormones that are secreted into interstitial fluid and act on nearby cells

8

What are the two chemical classes of hormones

Lipid soluble - bind to receptors in cytoplasm or nucleus of cell. Consist of steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide

Water soluble - bind to receptors on surface of cell. Include amine hormones, peptide and protein hormones, and eicosanoid hormones

9

What are the 7 hormones that the AP releases

hGH, TSH, PRL, FSH, LH, ACTH, MSH

10

Does the Posterior pituitary synthesize hormones? Explain

No, but neurosecretory cells release oxytocin and ADH from their axon terminals

11

What does oxytocin do

It targets smooth muscle in the uterus and breasts. Stimulates uterine contractions, and milk let down

12

What does ADH do

Targets the kidneys and sweat glands to minimize water loss. Also causes arterioles to constrict, increasing blood pressure

13

What are the physiological processes of the endocrine hormones

Balance body fluids, regulate metabolism and energy, direct rate of growth and development, exert control during stress, and oversee reproductive mechanisms

14

How is the AP connected to the hypothalamus

By blood vessels that form a portal system called the hypophyseal portal system

15

What do somatotroph cells release

hGH (human growth hormone) stimulates secretion of growth factors that promote growth

16

What do thyrophroph cells release

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones

17

What do lactrotroph cells release

PRL (prolactin) stimulates breast growth and development of mammary glands

18

What do gonadotroph cells release

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates secretion of estrogen and maturation of sex cells and production of testosterone.

Also releases LH (leutinizing hormone) which stimulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone and trigger ovulation

19

What do corticotroph cells release

ACTH (adrenocroticotropic hormone) which stimulates release of corticosteroids which plays a role in stress response and circadium rhythm.

MSH (Melanocyte stimulating hormone) which stimulates production of melanin. Also signals to the brain have effects on appetite and sexual arousal

20

What is most of the thyroid gland composed of

Thyroid follicles

21

What is TGB (thyroglobulin)

Stored in thyroid follicles. Releases T3 and T4 hormones

22

What do T3 and T4 do

Increase metabolism, body temp, blood pressure, and reduce cholesterol.

23

What is calcitonin (CT)

This is produced by parafollicular cells of thyroid gland and decreases calcium in blood

24

What does the parathyroid gland do

Regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions in the blood

25

What does the adrenal cortex do

Secretes steroid hormones. Has three zones: Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zone retiularis

26

What does the adrenal medulla do

Secretes chromaffin cells. Epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%)

27

What is the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Important endocrine component of autoregulation. Renin is released when blood volume falls. It is converted into agniotensin II which raises BP by vasoconstriction and secretes aldosterone which increases BV/BP

28

What are glucocorticoids

They regulate metabolism by promoting breakdown of proteins and fats to form glucose.

29

What type of gland is the pancreas

An endocrine and exocrine.

30

What is acini

Clusters of exocrine cells of the pancreas. Distributed among acini are clusters of endocrine tissue called pancreatic islets

31

What do the alpha cells of the pancreatic islet secrete

Glucagon

32

What do the beta cells of the pancreatic islet secrete

Insulin

33

What do the delta cells of the pancreatic islet secrete

Somatostatin

34

What do the F cells of the pancreatic islet secrete

Pancreatic polypeptide

35

What do the ovaries produce

Estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, and inhibin

36

What do the testes produce

Testosterone

37

What does the pineal gland produce

Melatonin

38

What is general adaptation syndrome

The bodily changes happening in an extremely stressful situation

39

What are the three stages of GAS?

Alarm reaction, resistance reaction, and exhaustion

40

Alarm reaction

The flight or fight response

41

Resistance reaction

Lasts longer than alarm reaction, sustains you after running, jumping, etc.

42

Exhaustion reaction

Body's reserves become so depleted that they cannot sustain resistance, and you want sleep/rest

43

With age..

  • Decrease thyroid hormones
  • Decrease growth hormones
  • Increase PTH, which takes calcium from bone and puts in into blood
  • No change in epinephrine/norepinephrine
  • Decrease sex hormones