Exam #2

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- amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree C


Gross (intake) energy-

the maximum amount of energy in a food stuff


Net energy-

the energy actually used by the animal after some energy is used for digestion and glycolysis, TCA, ETC and/or fermentation.


Resting Metabolic rate/Resting Energy Requirement/Basal Metabolic Rate (power point) =

essentially all these terms mean the minimal amount of energy (calories) needed to stay alive without exercise or lactation or gestation


How is cellular respiration and oxygen related to energy production?

    1. Oxygen is obtained through respiration. b. Oxygen is necessary for the production of ATP in the electron transport chain (ETC) during cellular respiration

What is the function of the electron transport chain?

To produce ATP

  1. Nutrients have to cross the cell ______________ to get in and help the cell do its job.


  1. What is anaerobic fermentation and where does it occur in certain animals?

Production of small amounts of ATP without the use of oxygen from carbohydrates by microorganisms in the rumen or large intestine (cecum and colon).


What major product(s) of the TCA/Krebs cycle is fed into the electron transport chain to help make the ETC work?

TCA cycle produces NADH and FADH2 which then are fed into the electron transport chain. In the ETC, H’s accept oxygen, water is formed, and the electrons that had been attached to the hydrogens help drive the formation of ATP .


List at least 3 ways in which energy is lost (hint: page 90).

Feces, gases, urine


Which is satisfied first, energy for maintenance or production (ie of milk if thinking about cows)?



Does and animal with a negative energy balance grow?



What is the relationship between body size and metabolic rate?

Smaller body size requires higher metabolic rate (think about a bird!) – we are not talking about total energy use, but how fast energy is used! (Heat given off in relation to body weight, but is not linear)


What are 2 of the factors involved which cause an animal to become obese?

By having the energy consumed exceed the energy required, overeating and/or lack of exercise. Also may be genetically predisposed to obesity by having a programmed slow metabolic rate and a greater efficiency in using feed energy.


know the formulas



What is the major form of energy in the animal and plant world?



What types of carbohydrates are referred to as fiber and where is it found?

Cellulose , hemicellulose and lignin are found in plants usually cell walls


What organs specifically require glucose for energy?

**Brain, kidneys and nervous tissue, RBC, liver


What is the function of fiber in the diet for non-herbivores like cats, dogs and humans?

Add bulk to the diet without adding energy, make the animal feel full but not fat, and keep peristalsis going!


What is a hexose? What is the most common one?

6-carbon ring sugar, glucose


What is another name for blood sugar?



If an animal does not have any glucose in its diet, how is it obtained?

Must be manufactured from glycogen or amino acids.


Sucrose or table sugar is a:

monosaccharide or disaccharide (circle one)


How is blood sugar kept from getting too high? Insulin What is hypoglycemia?

Low blood sugar


What is diabetes mellitus the disease? Lack of insulin or insufficient insulin. What do those terms mean in the original Greek?

to stand with legs apart as in urinating, Mellitus = sweet


What is a polymer?

Long chains of repeating individual chemical units, such as cellulose which is numerous glucose units bonded together.


What are starches?

What type of bond links the glucose molecules together in starches like amylase? Starches are complex carbohydrates that are repeating glucose (monosaccharide) units bound with alpha bonds


What enzyme is needed for animals to digest amylose and where does it come from in the body?

Amylase is required and is produced by the pancreas.


What type of chemical bonding is present in cellulose and hemicellulose?

beta bonding


Can the average monogastrics break these bonds? NO Who or what can?

Animals such as hindgut fermenters or ruminants, with lots of anaerobic bacteria. Rumen of ruminants and cecum and colon of hindgut fermenters contain lots of anaerobic bacterial microbes that digest cellulose and produce volatile fatty acids that can be used for energy by both the bacterial microbes and by the animal.


Which is more easily digestible, cellulose or hemicellulose?

Hemicellulose is more digestible


Can lignin be used by any animal for nutrients? NO What is its function in the diet?

Fiber to bulk up the diet for patients needing weight loss.

  1. In what2 forms can animals store carbs for later use? Glycogen and fat. Which of the two can be used as a source of glucose, and which one cannot?

Glycogen is a source of glucose, fat cannot be converted to glucose. Which one can only be stored in the liver and muscle? Glycogen


All 3 of the macronutrients – carbohydrates, fats, and proteins – contain the elements carbon (C) , oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H). Which of these 3 macronutrients also contains nitrogen?



Breaking down nutrients via chemical reactions in the body in order to create energy and heat is specifically known as :

  1. Catabolism
  2. Anabolism
  3. Embolism
  4. Metabolism
  1. Does the calculation of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) or Resting Energy Requirement (RER) include the animal’s voluntary movements, i.e. walking or running?

Yes or No (circle one)


Which hormone in the pituitary gland is responsible for signaling to the animal’s kidney that it needs to conserve water?

Anti-Diuretic Hormone


True or false (circle one): An animal is able to utilize all of the energy it consumes.



What function do fats provide in terms of energy?

Long term energy storage


Are fats good? Bad? Essential?

Fats are good and essential for many functions, it is only when they are consumed in excess that they are bad


What is the primary consequence of ingestion of too much fat?



In dogs, the consequence of ingesting too much fat at once can lead to pancreatitis. In a sentence or 2 (in your own words!), describe what this condition is (**you may need to look this up in Google – if so, list your reference).

Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. The inflammation of the pancreatic cells leads to leakage of pancreatic enzymes, which then start to digest the pancreas itself! This can be a very serious condition


What is lipogenesis? How does it occur in the animal?

Creation of new lipid compounds, usually from excess dietary glucose and amino acids for storage. **So yes, animals can get fat from eating too many carbs and/or proteins, not just too much fat!


What is the simplest form of a fat molecule?

Fatty acid


What is the fewest number of carbons in a fatty acid? The most?

2 carbons; 60 carbons


How can fatty acids be both fat soluble and water soluble?

They have both a lipophilic (same as hydrophobic) end (carbon chain) and a hydrophilic end(COOH or carboxylic acid group))


What type of molecule is vinegar a.k.a. acetic acid? Why is it called volatile?

It is a short chain fatty acid that easily made into a gas (B.P.- boiling point - just above RT) at room temperature, you can tell by the odor of vinegar that it is very volatile.


1 Acetic acid, butyric acid, and proprionic acid are all known as ________________’s. a.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA’s)


How does the chain length (number of carbons) affect the nature of fatty acids?

The more carbons the more solid the fat and the less water soluble it is.


How does the degree of saturation (number of hydrogens) or unsaturation (number of double bonds) affect their chemical nature?

The more double bonds, the less solid it is at room temperature


What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA?

Fatty acid with two or more double bonds


Double bonds in an unsaturated fatty acid cause the shape of the molecule to ______.



Arachidonic acid acid (an omega 6 fatty acid found in fish and meats) is essential for which species?

Feline, and some birds and fish


Why do cis and trans fats differ in shape?

Because the cis bond in space creates a bend in the molecule.


How do they affect membrane function?

The more bends in the molecule (cis double bonds) the more fluid the membrane because they provide more space, the straighter the molecule the less fluid and more crystalline (packed together).


How is the location of a double bond in a fatty acid molecule designated? Which carbon is the omega carbon?

The last carbon in the chain is called the omega carbon. The first carbon is the carboxylic acid one, and the second is termed alpha. The location of the double bond closest to the omega carbon is designated according to how far it is from the omega carbon.


What role do omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids play in nutrition?

Some are essential fatty acids and must be in the diet (how much depends on what species). Omega 3’s reduce inflammation, while omega 6’s can be related to the inflammatory response. Also involved in immune function and brain development.


What is a trans fat and why is it potentially harmful (at least to humans)? What foods are they found in? How are they made?

They are straighter molecules found in products like margarine and Crisco like products that would normally be liquid at room temp if they did not have the trans configuration. Since they are straighter they pack in like the more saturated molecules and affect membrane fluidity. They are made in the lab by adding hydrogens (i.e., “hydrogenating”) unsaturated fatty acids, so they become more solid. When you read food labels they will be called hydrogenated fats or oils…


What is a triacylglycerol, also known as triglyceride?

It is a molecule of glycerol (an alcohol) with three fatty acid chains attached, *** it is the storage form of fat in the body in adipose tissue


What is a sterol, what are some examples, and what roles do some sterols play in the body?

It is a fat molecule consisting of carbon rings: (so, rings instead of FA tails!)


What are phospholipids?

Two fatty acid tails with a phosphate group head , they are the major constituent of the cell membrane lipid bilyaer.


What are sphingolipids?

Complex combinations of long chain fatty acids and other compounds, make up myelin sheath.(Sphingomyelin)


What are lipoproteins? What is HDL? LDL? Are they really good or bad?

    1. These are protein and lipid combination molecules (i.e. lipoproteins) that carry cholesterol throughout the blood.
    2. LDL or low density lipoproteins transport cholesterol to tissues
      1. Elevated when excess sugars and saturated fats are consumed, and are associated with arterial disease.
    3. HDL or high density lipoprotein transport cholesterol away from tissues to the liver for removal (so this is the good cholesterol for humans)

List 5 functions of proteins: (I listed more…)

a. Chemical messenger molecules b. Framework of organs c. Transporter/carrier of other molecules d. Major component of muscle e. Key part of cell membranes (transporter and receptor proteins) f. Make up hormones such as insulin g. Vital component of blood, including clotting factors and carrying proteins (albumin) h. Provide for growth and reproduction i. Function as catalysts of reaction in the body known as enzymes j. Function in immune system (antibodies are proteins!)


What is an enzyme?

A protein which catalyzes reactions but doesn’t undergo any changes itself

Most are involved in metabolism


What does it mean to call some amino acids “essential”?

Must be in the diet, an animal cannot make them or cannot make in sufficient quantity to sustain life.


What is the basic chemical structure of an amino acid?

differences in the side chain (R group) produces the different amino acids, the amino group (contains N) and the carboxylic acid group are consistent


What are proteins?

Amino acids linked by peptide bonds between the amino group of one and the carboxylic acid group of another.


What is the primary structure?

The linear sequence of amino acids in the chain


What is the secondary structure?

Bending of primary chain into shapes like beta pleated sheets and helical structures


What is the tertiary structure?

Final shaping of the protein by forming bonds between side chains (sheets and coils bonding together) **This is a functional protein!


What is the quaternary structure?

Joining of one or more tertiary structures together such as in a hemoglobin molecule, forming large macromolecules


How are proteins digested and absorbed?

Begins in the stomach, pepsin enzymes begin to break down the protein, then enzymes in the small intestine break it down further to amino acids and small peptides which are then absorbed.


How is excess protein excreted?

Excess nitrogen is turned into ammonia, then is excreted unchanged by fish, but turned into urea and then urine in mammals, and into urea and then uric acid by birds.


Which do animals require for life, proteins or amino acids?

Amino acids!! The building blocks of proteins!


What is the function of a globular protein?

Enzymes, muscles, storage, binding and transport proteins


What is the function of a fibrin protein?

Make up connective tissues, collagen and elastin, keratin


What are Glycoproteins?

Protein with carbohydrate attached



Proteins with lots of carbohydrates, joint lubricants



Proteins with phosphorus attached, include regulatory proteins



Proteins with lipids attached



Proteins with metal atoms, such as hemoglobin which contains Fe++ (iron).


What is non-protein nitrogen and how is it used in animal nutrition?

NPN is sources of nitrogen like urea compounds that are fed to ruminants whose microorganisms then can use it as a source of nitrogen and make amino acids from carbon skeletons of other molecules. NPN not useful for companion animals such as dogs and cats.


Taurine is an amino acid that is NOT a building block of larger proteins, but is very important for the health and well being of which species?



Which amino acid can cause problems within several hours of consuming a meal? And in which species?

The answer is arginine, and the species is cats!