Chapter 6

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Water & Minerals
updated 3 years ago by Julie_Wardia
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1

Insensible Water Loss

immeasurable losses

2

Sensible Water Loss

measurable losses

3

Metabolic Water

Water produced as a by-product from the breakdown of carbohydrates, protein, and fat for energy.

4

Inorganic

Not containing carbon or concerning living things

5

Microcytic

Small blood cells

6

Hypochromic

Pale red blood cells related to the decrease in hemoglobin pigment.

7

Goitrogens

Thyroid antagonists found in cruciferous vegetables, soybeans, and sweet potatoes

8

Cariogenic

Cavity promoting

9

A healthy, young adult client asks how much water he should drink daily. Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?

A. the old adage is true: drink eight 8 oz- glasses of water daily

B. Drink to satisfy thirst and you will consume adequate fluid

C. You can't overconsume water, so drink as much as you can spread out over the course of the day.

D. It is actually not necessary to drink water at all. It is equally healthy to meet your fluid requirement with sugar-free soft drinks.

B

10

When developing a teaching plan for a client who is lactose intolerant, which of the following foods would the nurse suggest as sources of calcium the client could tolerate?

A. Cheddar cheese, bok choy, broccoli

B. Spinach, beet greens, skim milk

C. Poultry, meat, eggs

D. Whole grains, nuts, cocoa

A

11

A client with osteoporosis was advised to drink 3 glasses of milk daily to increase her calcium intake. She wants to know why she just can't take calcium supplements. The nurse's best response is:

A. calcium supplements are a better idea than drinking more milk because milk provides calories. Just be sure to take the doses spread out over 3 meals.

B. Calcium supplements should be avoided because they raise blood levels of calcium to an unhealthy level.

C. Calcim is best obtained from foods not pills, and fat-free milk is one of the best options.

D. It is hard to consume enough calcium through pill form only.

C

12

Which of the following recommendations would be most effective at increasing potassium intake?

A. Choose enriched grains in place of whole grains.

B. Eat more fruits and vegetables

C. Eat more seafood and poultry in place of red meat.

D. Because there are few good dietary sources of potassium, it is best obtained by taking potassium supplements.

B

13

A client asks why eating less sodium is important for healthy people. The nurse's best response is:

A. Low-sodium diets tend to be low in fat and therefore may reduce the risk of heat disease.

B. Low-sodium diets are only effective at prevention high blood pressure, not lowering existing high blood pressure, so the time to implement a low-sodium diet is when you are healthy.

C. There is a positive relationship between higher sodium intake and the risk of high blood pressure; lowering sodium intake may help prevent or delay high blood pressure.

D. Low-sodium diets are inherently low in calories and help people lose weight, which can help prevent a variety of chronic diseases

C

14

Which of the following recommendations would be most effective at helping a client maximize iron absorption?

A. drink orange juice when you eat iron-fortified breakfast cereal.

B. avoid drinking coffee when you eat red meat.

C. Drink milk with all meals.

D. Eat dried peas and beans in place of red meat

A

15

A client says he never adds salt to any foods that his wife serves, so he believes he is consuming a low-sodium diet. Which of the following is the nurse's best response?

A. If you don't add salt to any of your foods, you are probably eating a low-sodium diet, continue with that strategy.

B. Even though you aren't adding salt to food at the table, your wife is probably salting food as she cooks. She should stop doing that.

C. Lots of foods are naturally high in sodium, such as milk and meat; in addition to not using a salt shaker, you must also limit foods that are naturally high in sodium.

D. The major sources of sodium are processed and convenience foods. Limiting their intake makes the biggest impact on overall sodium intake.

D

16

What should you tell the client about taking mineral supplements?

A. Most Americans are deficient in minerals, so it is wise to take a multimineral supplement.

B. Like water-soluble vitamins, if you consume more minerals than your body needs, you will excrete them in the urine, so do not worry about taking in too much.

C. if you do not have a mineral deficiency, taking supplements can lead to a potentially excessive intake that can cause adverse health effects.

D. Mineral deficiencies do not exist in the United States. So you do not need to waste your money on them.

C