Chapter 5

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Vitamins
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1

Micronutrients

Nutrients that are needed in very small amounts

2

Oxidation

a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen; the loss of electrons in an atom

3

Provitamins:

precursors of vitamins

4

Enzymes

proteins produced by cells that catalyze chemical reactions within the body without undergoing change themselves

5

Coenzymes

organic molecules that active an enzyme

6

Free radicals

highly undstable, highly reactive molecular fragments with one or more unpaired electrons

7

Antioxidants

substances that donate electrons to free radicals to prevent oxidation

8

Food additives

substances added intentionally or unintentionally to food that affect its character

9

Enrich

to add nutrients back that were lost during processing

10

Fortified

to fortify is to add nutrients to a food that were either not originally present or were present in insignificant amounts; for instance, many brands of orange juice are fortified with vitamin D

11

Megadoses

Amounts at least 10 times greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance

12

Preformed Vitamin A

the active form of Vitamin A

13

Carotenoids

a group name of retinol precursors found in plants

14

Essential nutrient:

A nutrient that must be supplied by the diet because it is not synthesized in the body. Essentiality does not refer to importance but to the need for a dietary source

15

Rickets

Vitamin D deficiency disease in children, most prominently characterized by bowed legs

16

Osteomalacia

adults rickets characterized by inadequate bone mineralization due to the lack of Vitamin D

17

IU

to convert micrograms of vitamin D to IU, multiply micrograms by 40.

18

Homocysteine

An amino acid correlated with increased risk of heart disease

19

Methionine

an essential amino acid

20

Niacin Equivalents (NEs)

the amount of niacin available to the body including that made from tryptophan

21

Dietary folate Equivalents (DFEs)

DFE = microgram of food folate + (1.7 X micrograms synthetic folic acid)

22

Phytonutrients

Bioactive, nonnutrient plant compounds associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases

23

When developing a teaching plan for a client who is on warfarin (Coumadin), which of the following foods would the nurse suggest the client consume a consistent intake of because of their vitamin K content?

A. liver, milk, and eggs

B. Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, and spinach

C. Fortified cereals, whole grains, and nuts

D. dried peas and beans, wheat germ, and seeds

B

24

A client asks if it is better to consume folic acid from fortified foods or from a vitamin pill. Which of the following it the nurse's best response?

A. it is better to consume folic acid through fortified foods because it will be better absorbed than through pill form

B. It is better to consume folic acid through vitamin pills because it will be better absorbed than through fortified foods

C Fortified foods and vitamin pills have the same form of folic acid, so it does not matter which source you use because they are both well absorbed

D. It is best to consume naturally rich sources of folate because that form is better absorbed than the folic acid in either fortified foods or vitamin pills

C

25

Which population is at risk for combined deficiencies of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin?

A. pregnant women

B. vegetarians

C. alcoholics

D. athletes

C

26

Which vitamin is given in large doses to facilitate wound and bone healing?

A. vitamin A

B. Vitamin D

C. Vitamin C

D. Niacin

C

27

Which statement indicates that the client understands instruction about using a vitamin supplement?

A. USP on the label guarantees safety and effectiveness

B. Natural vitamins are always better for you than synthetic vitamins

C. Vitamins are best absorbed on an empty stomach

D. Taking a multivitamin cannot fully make up for poor food choices

D

28

The client asks if taking supplements of beta-carotene will help reduce the risk of cancer. Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?

A. Supplements of beta-carotene may help reduce the risk of heart disease but not of cancer

B. Supplements of beta-carotene have not been shown to lower the risk of cancer and may even promote cancer in certain people

C. Although evidence is preliminary, taking beta-carotene supplements is safe and may prove to be effective against cancer in the future.

D. Natural supplements of beta-carotene are generally harmless; synthetic supplements of beta-carotene may increase cancer risk and should be avoided

B

29

A client is diagnosed with pernicious anemia. What vitamin is he not absorbing?

A. folic acid

B. vitamin B6

C. vitamin B12

D. niacin

C

30

A client with hyperlipidemia is prescribed niacin. The client asks if he can just include more niacin-rich foods in his diet and forgo the need for niacin in pill form. Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?

A. The dose of niacin needed to treat hyperlipidemia is far more than can be consumed through eating a niacin-rich diet.

B. You can't get the therapeutic form of niacin through food

C. Niacin from food is not as well absorbed niacin from pills.

D. If you are able to consistently choose niacin-fortified foods in your diet, your doctor may allow you to forgo the pills and rely on dietary sources of niacin

A