Chapter 4

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Julie_Wardia
118 views
Lipids
updated 3 years ago by Julie_Wardia
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Lipids

A group of water-insoluble, energy-yielding organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms

2

Triglycerides

A class of lipids composed of a glycerol molecule as its backbone with three fatty acids attached

3

Fatty Acids

organic compounds composed of a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are attached. An acid group (COOH) is attached at one end, and a methyl group (CH3) at the other end

4

Glycerol

A three-carbon atom chain that serves as the backbone of triglycerides

5

Saturated Fatty acids

Fatty acids in which all the carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold so no double bonds exist between carbon atoms

6

Unsaturated fatty acids:

fatty acids that are not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms, so one or more double bones form between the carbon atoms

7

Monounsaturated fatty acids

Fatty acids that have only one double bond between 2 carbon atoms

8

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

fatty acids that have 2 or more double bonds between carbon atoms

9

Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol

The major class of atherogenic lipoproteins that carry cholesterol from the liver to the tissues

10

Omega-3 fatty acid

an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost double bone occurs three carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain

11

Omega 6 Fatty acid

an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost double bond occurs six carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain

12

Essential fatty acids

fatty acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and thus must be consumed through food

13

Phospholipids

A group of compound lipids that is similar to triglycerides in that they contain a glycerol molecule and two fatty acids. In place of the third fatty acids, phospholipids have a phosphate group and a molecule of choline or another nitrogen-containing compound

14

Emulsifier

A stabilizing compound that helps to keep both parts of an emulsion (oil and water mixture) from separating

15

Sterols

One of three main classes of lipids that include cholesterol, bile acids, sex hormones, the adrenocortical hormones and vitamin D

16

Monoglyceride

A glyceride molecule with only 1 fatty acid attached

17

Micelles

Fat particles encircled by bile salts to facilitate their diffusion into intestinal cells

18

Chylomicrons

Lipoproteins that transport absorbed lipids from intestinal cells through the lymph and eventually into the bloodstream

19

Marbling

fat deposited in the muscle of meat

20

Methylmercury

Mercury, a neurotoxin, is a heavy metal that occurs naturally in the environment and is released into the air through industrial pollution. It changes into methylmercury when it falls from the air into the water. As a fat-soluble element, it accumulates in the fat tissue of large predatory fish.

21

Pregnant and lactating women and children younger than age 8 years are vulnerable to the toxic effects of mercury because:

it can damage the developing brain and spinal cord

22

The client asks if the cholesterol in shrimp is the good or bad type. Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?

A. all cholesterol is bad cholesterol

B. Bad and good refer to how cholesterol is packaged for transport through the blood. The cholesterol in food is unpackaged and neither bad nor good

C. Good cholesterol is found in plants; bad cholesterol is found in animal sources

D. shrimp has good cholesterol because it is low in saturated fat; foods high in cholesterol and saturated fat are a bad source of cholesterol

B.

23

When developing a teaching plan for a client who needs to limit saturated fat, which of the following foods would the nurse suggest the client limit?

A. seafood and poultry

B. nuts and seeds

C. olive oil and canola oil

D. red meat and full-fat dairy products

D

24

What is the primary function of fat?

A. to facilitate protein metabolism

B. to provide energy

C. to promote the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

D. to facilitate carbohydrate metabolism

B

25

The nurse knows that instructions have been effective when the client verbalizes that the sources of synthetic trans fats are

A. Red meat and full-fat dairy products

B. Commercial baked goods and stick margarine

C. Pretzels and nuts

D. Butter and lard

B

26

A client asks why lowering saturated fat intake is necessary for lowering serum cholesterol levels. Which of the following is the nurse's best response?

A. Saturated fats raise the bad cholesterol levels more than any other dietary fat

B. Sources of saturated fat also provide monounsaturated fat, and both should be limited to control blood cholesterol levels

C. Saturated fat is high in calories and excess calories from any source increase the risk of high blood cholesterol levels.

D. saturated fats make blood more likely to clot, increasing the risk of heart attack

A

27

What should the nurse tell a client who likes fish, but refuses to eat it because of fear of mercury poisoning?

A. You are justified to be concerned. To be safe, use fish oil supplements instead

B. You can eat as much fish as you want because most fish are not contaiminated with even small amounts of mercury

C. The benefits of eating 8 oz/week of a variety of fish outweigh any potential risks from mercury

D. As a compromise, eat 4 oz of fish per week instead of 8 oz

C

28

Which statement indicates the client understands about choosing low-fat foods from MyPlate?

A. All items within a food group have approximately the same amount of fat

B. You don't have to consciously select low-fat items because the empty calorie allowance will account for higher fat choices

C. It is best to eliminate as much fat from the diet as possible

D. Within each food group, the foods lowest in fat should be chosen most often

D

29

Which of the following are the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids?

A. salmon and trout

B. flaxseed and walnuts

C. olive and canola oils

D. cod fish and haddock

A