Chapter 53

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Vitamins and Minerals
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1

Beriberi

A disease of the peripheral nerves caused by a dietary deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). Symptoms include: fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, edema, heart failure, and disturbed nerve function.

2

Coenzyme:

a nonprotein substance that combines with a protein molecule to form an active enzyme

3

Enzymes:

specialized proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions

4

Fat-soluble vitamins:

vitamins that can be dissolved in fat

5

Minerals:

inorganic substances that are ingested and attached to enzymes or other organic molecules

6

Pellagra

A disease resulting from a deficiency of niacin or a metabolic defect that interferes with the conversion of tryptophan to niacin (vitamin B3)

7

Rhodopsin

The purple pigment in the rods of the retina, formed by a protein, opsin and a derivative of retinol (vitamin A)

8

Rickets:

A condition caused by a deficiency of vitamin D

9

Scurvy:

A condition resulting from a deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

10

Tocopherols:

Biologically active chemicals that make up vitamin E compounds

11

Vitamins:

Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiologic and metabolic functioning of the body

12

Water-soluble vitamins:

vitamins that can be dissolved in water

13

Fat-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin A, D, E, K

14

Water-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B9, B7, B12; vitamin C

15

Other name for Vitamin A

retinol

16

Other name for vitamin D

D3, cholecalcifoerol; D2, ergocalciferol

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Other name for vitamin E:

tocopherols

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Other name for vitamin K:

K1, phytonadion; k2, menaquinon

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Other name for Vitamin B1:

thiamine

20

Other name for vitamin B2:

riboflavin

21

Other name for vitamin B3

niacin

22

Other name for vitamin B5:

pantothenic acid

23

Other name for vitamin B6:

pyridoxine

24

Other name for vitamin B9:

folic acid

25

Other name for vitamin B7:

biotin

26

Other name for vitamin B12:

cyanocovalamin

27

Other name for vitamin C:

ascorbic acid

28

Adverse effects for Vitamin A in the CNS:

headache, increased intracranial pressure, lethargy, malaise

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Adverse effects for Vitamin A in the GI:

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain

30

Adverse effects for Vitamin A in the Integumentary:

Dry skin, pruritus, increased pigmentation, night sweats

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Adverse effects for Vit A metabolically:

hypomenorrhea, hypercalcemia

32

Adverse effects for Vit A in the musculoskeletal system:

arthralgia, retarded growth

33

Food sources for Vitamin A:

liver, fish, dairy products, egg yolks, dark green, leafy, yellow-orange vegetables and fruits

34

Food sources for Vitamin D:

Dairy products, fortified cereals and fortified orange juice, liver, fish liver oils, saltwater fish, butter, eggs

35

Food Sources for vitamin E:

fish, egg yolks, meats, vegetable oils, nuts, fruits, wheat germ, grains, fortified cereals

36

Food sources for Vitamin K:

Cheese, spinach, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, cabbage, turnip greens, soybean oils

37

Food sources for Vitamin B1 (thiamine):

yeast, liver, enriched whole-grain products, beans

38

Food sources for Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Meats, liver, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, enriched whole-grain products, green leafy vegetables, yeast

39

Food sources for vitamin B3 (niacin)

liver, turkey, tuna, peanuts, beans, yeast, enriched whole-grain breads and cereals, wheat germ

40

Food sources for vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

organ meats, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, peanuts, whole grain products, vegetables, nuts, wheat germs, bananas, fortified cereals

41

Food sources for vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)

liver, kidney, shellfish, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, blue cheese, fortified cereals

42

Food sources for Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Broccoli, green peppers, spinach, brussel sprouts, citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries, cabbage, liver

43

Food sources for calcium:

Dairy products, fortified cereals and calcium-fortified orange juice, sardines, salmon

44

Food sources for magnesium:

Meats, seafood, milk, cheese, yogurt, green leafy vegetables, bran cereal, nuts

45

Food sources for phosphorus:

Milk, yogurt, cheese, peas, meat, fish, eggs

46

Zinc:

red meats, liver, oysters, certain seafood, milk products, eggs, beans, nuts, whole grains, fortified cereals

47

Vitamin D adverse effects in cardiovascular system:

hypertension, dyrhythmias

48

Vitamin D adverse effects in central nervous system:

fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, headache

49

Vitamin D adverse effects GI:

nausea, vomiting, anorexia, cramps, metallic taste, dry mouth, constipation

50

Vitamin D adverse effects in genitourinary:

polyuria, albuminuria

51

Vitamin D adverse effects in musculoskeletal:

decreased bone growth, bone and muscle pain

52

Vitamin E adverse effects in Central nervous system:

fatigue, headache, blurred vision

53

Vitamin E adverse effect in GI:

Nausea, diarrhea, flatulence

54

Vitamin E adverse effect in Genitourinary:

increased blood urea nitrogen level

55

Vitamin E adverse effect in musculoskseletal:

weakness

56

Vitamin K adverse effect in CNS

headache, brain damage (large doses)

57

Vitamin K adverse effect in GI:

nausea, decreased liver enzyme levels

58

Vitamin K adverse effects in hematologic:

hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, hyperbilirubinemia

59

Vitamin K adverse effects in integumentary:

rash, urticaria

60

Niacin adverse effects in cardiovascular system:

postural hypotension, dysrhythmias

61

Niacin adverse effects in central nervous system:

headache, dizziness, anxiety

62

Niacin adverse effects in GI:

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, peptic ulcer

63

Niacin adverse effects in Genitourinary:

hyperuricemia

64

Niacin adverse effects in Hepatic:

abnormal liver function test results, hepatitis

65

Niacin adverse effects in integumentary:

flushing, dry skin, rash, pruritus, keratosis

66

Niacin adverse effects in metabolic:

decreased glucose tolerance

67

Pyridoxine adverse effects in CNS:

parethesias, flushing, headache. lethargy

68

Pyridoxine adverse effects in Integumentary:

pain at injection site.

69

Cyanocobalamin adverse effects in cardiovascular:

vascular thrombosis, pulmonary edema

70

Cyanocobalamin adverse effects in central nervous system:

flushing, optic nerve atrophy

71

Cyanocobalamin adverse effects in GI:

diarrhea

72

Cyanocobalamin adverse effects in integumentary:

pruritus, rash, pain at injection site

73

Cyanocobalamin adverse effects in metabolic:

hypokalemia

74

Calcium deficiency cause: inadequate intake:

Disorder: infantile rickets

75

Calcium deficiency cause: insufficient vitamin D:

adult osteomalacia

76

Calcium deficiency cause: hypoparathyroidism:

Muscle cramps

77

Calcium deficiency cause: Malabsorption syndrome:

Osteoporosis

78

Calcium salts adverse effects in cardiovascular system:

hemorrhage, rebound hypertension

79

Calcium salts adverse effects in Gastrointestinal

constipation, nausea, vomiting, flatulence

80

Calcium salts adverse effects in Genitourinary:

renal dysfunction, renal stones, renal failure

81

Calcium salts adverse effects in Metabolic:

hypercalcemia, metabolic alkolosis