Chapter 7

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Over-the Counter Drugs & Herbal and Dietary Supplements
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1

Alternative medicine

Herbal medicine, chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, reflexology and any other therapies traditionally not emphasized in Western medical schools

2

Complementary medicine

The practice of medicine as taught in Western medical schools

3

Dietary Supplement:

a product that contains an ingredient intended to supplement the diet, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other botanicals.

4

Herbal medicine:

the practice of using herbs to heal

5

Herbs:

plant components including bark, roots, leaves, seeds, flowers, fruit of trees, and extracts of these plants that are valued for their savory, aromatic, or medicinal qualities

6

Iatrogenic effects:

unintentional adverse effects that are caused by the actions of a prescriber, other health care professional, or by a specific treatment

7

Integrative medicine:

simultaneous use of both traditional and alternative medicine

8

Legend drugs:

Medications that are not legally available without a prescription from a prescriber; also called prescription drugs

9

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs:

medications that are legally available without a prescription

10

Phytochemicals:

the pharmacologically active ingredients in herbal remedies

11

Over the counter indication for use:

Consumers must be able to easily: diagnose condition, monitor effectiveness; benefits of correct usage must outweigh risks.

12

OTC safety profile:

Drugs must have: favorable adverse event profile, limited interaction with other drugs, low potential for abuse, high therapeutic index

13

OTC Practicality for OTC use:

drugs must be: easy to use, easy to monitor

14

Types of OTC analgesics:

ibuprofen & naproxen sodium

15

Types of ibuprofen:

advil, motrin

16

Types of naproxen sodium:

aleve, naprosyn

17

Histamine Blockers:

H1 receptors, h2 receptors, nasal steroids, proton pump inhibitors, smoking deterrents, topical medications, weight loss products

18

Type of H1 receptors:

chlorpheniramine maleate, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, fexofenadine, loratadine, cetirizine

19

Types of H2 receptors:

cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, ranitidine

20

Types of nasal steroids:

Flonase allergy relief, Nasacort allergy 24 HR

21

Types of Proton Pump inhibitors:

esomeprazole, iansoprazole, omeprazole

22

Types of smoking deterrents:

nicotine polacrilex gum, nicotine transdermal patches

23

Types of topical medications:

clotrimazole, butoconazole, miconazole, minoxidil solution and hydrocortisone acetate 1% cream, terbinafine

24

Types of weight loss products:

orlistat

25

Orlistat is also called:

Alli

26

Chlorpheniramine maleate is also called:

Chlor-Trimeton

27

Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is also called:

Benadryl

28

Fexofenadine is also called:

Allegra

29

Loratadine is also called:

Calritin

30

Cetirizine is also called:

Zyrtec

31

Cimetidine is also called:

Tagamet HB

32

Famotidine is also called:

Pepcid AC

33

Nizatidine is also called:

Axid AR

34

Ranitidine is also called:

Zantac

35

Flonase allergy relief is also called:

fluticasone propionate

36

Nasacort Allergy 24 HR is also called:

triamcinolone acetonide

37

Esomeprazole is also called:

Nexium-24

38

Iansoprazole is also called:

Prevacid-24

39

Omeprazole is also called:

Prilosec-OTC

40

Nicotine polacrilex gum is also called:

Nicorette

41

Nicotine transdermal patches is also called:

Nicoderm

42

Clotrimazole is also called:

Clotrimazole

43

Butoconazole is also called:

Femstat

44

Miconazole is also called:

Monistat

45

Minoxidil solution and hydrocortisone acetate 1% cream is also called:

Rogaine

46

Terbinafine is also called:

Lamisil AT

47

Atropine comes from the plant:

Atropa belladonna

48

Capsaicin comes from the plant:

Capsicum frutescens

49

Cocaine comes from the plant:

Erythroxylon coca

50

Codeine comes from the plant:

Papaver somniferum

51

Digoxin comes from the plant:

Digitalis lanata

52

Paclitaxel comes from the plant:

Taxis brevifolia

53

Scopolamine comes from the plant:

Datura fastuosa

54

Senna comes from the plant:

Cassia acutifolia

55

incristine comes from the plant:

Catharanthus roseus

56

Chamomile - drug interaction is:

Increased risk for bleeding with anticoagulants

57

Cranberry - drug interaction is:

Decreased elimination of many drugs that are renally excreted

58

Echinacea - drug interaction is:

Possible interference with or counteraction to immunosuppressant drugs and antivirals

59

Evening primrose - drug interaction is:

Possible interaction with antipsychotic drugs

60

Garlic - drug interaction is:

Possible interference with hypoglycemic therapy and the anticoagulant warfarin

61

Gingko - drug interaction is:

may increase risk for bleeding with anticoagulants (warfarin, heparin) and antiplatelets (aspirin, clopidogrel)

62

Ginger root - drug interaction is:

at high dosages, possible interference with cardiac, antidiabetic or anticoagulant drugs

63

Grapefruit - drug interaction is:

decreases metabolism of drugs used for erectile dysfunction, estrogens, and some psychotherapeutic drugs; increases risk for toxicity of immunosuppressants, HMG-CoA reductase inhibiotrs, and some psychotherapeutic drugs; increases intensity and duration of effects of caffeine

64

Hawthorn - drug interaction is:

May lead to toxic levels of cardiac glycosides

65

Kava - drug interaction is:

May increase the effect of barbiturates and alcohol

66

Saw palmetto - drug interaction is:

May change the effects of hormone in oral contraceptive drugs, patches or hormonal replacement therapies

67

St. John's worts - drug interaction is:

May lead to serotonin syndrome if used with other serotonergic drugs; may interact with many drugs, including antidepressants, antihistamines, digoxin, immunosuppressants, theophylline, and warfarin

68

Valerian - drug interaction is:

increases CNS depression if used with sedatives

69

Types of acid-controlling drugs, antacids, and proton pump inhibitors that are OTC:

Famotidine, ranitidine, aluminum-and magnesium containing products, calcium-containing products, esomeprazole, Iansoprazole, omeprazole

70

Antifungal drugs that are OTC:

clotrimazole, miconazole, terbinafine

71

Antihistamines and decongestants that are OTC:

brompheniramine, cetirizine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, guaifenesine, loratadine, pseudoephedrine

72

Eyedrops that are OTC:

artificial tears

73

Hair growth drugs (topical) that are OTC:

minoxidil

74

Analgesics that are OTCP

acetaminophen

75

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are OTC :

Aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen sodium

76

Nasal steroids that are OTC:

fluticasone, triamcinolone