CHE 360 week 1 key terms

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created 3 years ago by watson9emma
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updated 3 years ago by watson9emma
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pharmacology
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1

high throughput screening

Drug-discovery process, used to test large amounts of compounds at one time

2

animal testing

using non-human mammals to test or toxicity and other variable of drugs

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carcinogenicity

any substance that causes the formation of cancer

4

bacterial mutation (Ames) test

using bacteria to test whether a chemical can cause mutations in the DNA of the test organism

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phase 1 human trials

show safety/toxicity in <100 healthy people

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phase 2 human trials

test effectiveness in ~200 affected patients

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phase 3 human trials

confirm effectiveness in >1000 affected patients

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phase 4 human trails

test long lasting effectiveness

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idiosyncratic or paradoxical effects

effect of medical treatment opposite to the effect which would normally be expected

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off-label uses

drugs being prescribed for uses other than what was approved from the FDA. Drug companies cannot advertise for these uses.

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teratogenicity

drugs harmless to patient but can cause damage to fetal development

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category a

extensive data on pregnant women shows it to be harmless to fetus

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category b

available data in humans shows no evidence for birth defects but data is insufficient to be conclusive. Animal studies show no evidence of birth defects.

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category c

majority of drugs. adversee effects have been demonstrated in animal studies but insuficient data on humans to reach any firm conclusion

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category d

clinical data in humans suggests that drugs increase the risk of birth defects. May be prescribed if the dr. finds the potential benefit of the drug to outweighs the risk.

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category x

clear evidence of substantial risk of birth defects. These drugs should not be taken by women who are pregnant or might become pregnant.

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Drug abuse potential

the potential to become abuse the substance from illegal to safest

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schedule 1

no recognized legal use in the US

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schedule 2

legal drugs with high potential for abuse

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schedule 3

abuse of drugs or other substances may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence

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schedule 4

like schedule 3 but is less severe

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schedule 5

lowest category in DEA

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Generic Name

created by the inventors/discovers of a drug, but may be used by anyone

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Trade Name

Exclusive to one company and are extensively advertised

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ac

before meals

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pc

after meals

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bid

2 times daily

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tid

three times daily

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qid

four time daily

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qd

daily

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hs

at bedtime

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PRN

as needed

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PO

by mouth

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NPO

nothing by mouth

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SC

subcutaneous

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IV

intravenous

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OTC

Over the counter