Exam 1 Drugs

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created 2 years ago by djmordus
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Pharmacology
Chapters 15, 16
updated 2 years ago by djmordus
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1

epinephrin (Adrenalin)

non-specific/non-selective adrenergic agonist

Uses: Treat allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, cardiac arrest (stimulate cardiac contraction), orthostatic hypotension

Routes: SubQ, neb, IV, intracardiac, topically

Contraindications: cardiac dysrhythmias, glaucoma, prolonged use: drug resistance

Sx: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, tremors, anorexia, insomnia, pallor, renal perfusion/uo

Adverse: cardiac dysrhythmias, palpitations, tachycardia, dyspnea

2

albuterol (Proventil/Ventolin)

Selective adrenergic beta2

Contraindications: cardiac disease, hypertension, hyperthyroidism

Sx: tremor, dizziness, nervousness, restlessness

Adverse: palpitations, reflect tachycardia, dysrhythmias

3

metoprolol (Lopressor)

Select Beta1 blocker

Uses: angina, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, heart failure, MI

Contraindications: bradycardia, heartblock, heart failure, headache, asthma,COPD

Sx: bradycardia, dizziness, fainting, impotence

Adverse: significant bradycardia, dysrhythmias. masking of hypoglycemia

4

propanolol hydrochloride (Inderal)

Non-selective (Beta1 and Beta2) blocker

Decr HR/bronchconstriction

5

atenolol (Tenormin)

Selective Beta1

Uses: Treat angina, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, heart failure, MI
Contraindications: bradycardia, heart block, heart failure, headache, asthma/COPD
Side effects: bradycardia, dizziness, fainting, impotence
Adverse reactions: significant bradycardia, dysrhythmias, masking of hypoglycemia

6

metoclopromide (Reglan)

Direct-acting cholinergic

GI - gastroesophageal reflux (accelerates gastric emptying time)

7

pilocarpine

Direct-acting cholinergic

Eye - reduces glaucoma by constricting pupils which decr IOP

8

bethanecol (Urecholine)

Direct-acting cholinergic

GU - incr urination

Contraindications: severe bradycardia or HTN, COPD, asthma, Parkinson's

Sx: frequent urination, blurred vision, N/V/D

Adverse: muscle weakness, hemodynamically significant bradycardia, or HTN, asthmatic crisis

Antidote - atropine sulfate

9

triphexphenidyl (Artane)

benztropine (Cogentin)

Anticholinergic

Antiparkinson

10

atropine sulfate

Anticholinergic

Uses: incr heart rate for some bradycardias (vagally stim), decr secretions, dilates pupils

Contraindications: glaucoma, myasthenia gracis, paralytic ileus, benign prostatic hypertrophy (enlarged prostate)

Sx: dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, urinary retention, confusion

Adverse: abdominal distension, tachycardia

11

tolterodine tartrate (Detrol)

Anticholinergic

Uses: for urinary incontinence, urgency, frequency (blocks cholinergic receptors in bladder)

12

desmopressin (DDAVP)

For DI: nasal

Also given for enuresis (involuntary urination)

13

growth hormone

Anterior Pituitary

GH

Excess before puberty - gigantism

Excess after puberty - acromegaly

Rx: Suppress with radiation

Deficiency - may be primary or secondary

Rx: somatropin (Genotropin) GH - IM or SQ (not PO)

Before growth plates fuse, may cause hyperglycemia/diabetes

14

levothyroxine (Synthroid)

thyroid replacement

15

methimazole (Tapazole )

antithyroid

This drug blocks the synthesis of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland

16

parathormone (PTH)

Mobilizes Ca from bone

Promote Ca absorption from the intestine

Promote Ca reabsorption from the renal tubules

17

calcitrol (Rocaltrol)

Promotes Ca absorption

18

prednisone (Deltasone)

Steroid/corticosteroids

Uses: anti-inflammatory (airway), anti-allergic, cancer, organ transplantation (rejection), arthritis, autoimmune/dermatologic disorders

Sx: N/V

Careful w/ diabetes, HF,HTN, MI (all steroids)

GI toxicity with ASA/NSAIDs

Assess weight

Incr BG levels, lowers K

Tapering to avoid adrenal insufficiency

19

dexamethasone (Decadron)

Steroid/corticosteroids

Routes—PO, IV, topical, resp.
Action: Metabolism, muscle and blood cell activity, fluid/electrolyte changes, BP
Uses: anti-inflammatory (airway), anti-allergic, cancer, organ transplantation (rejection), arthritis, autoimmune/dermatologic disorders
Many drug and herb interactions
Side effects: bleeding ulcers, hyperglycemia, fluid retention (see Cushing), muscle wasting, osteoporosis

20

Lispro (Humalog)

Rapid acting insulin

Onset: 15 minutes

Peak: 0.5-1.5 hours

21

Regular

Short acting insulin

Onset: 30 minutes or 0.5-1 hour

Peak 2-4 hours

22

NPH - neutral protamine Hagedorn

Intermediate acting insulin

Onset: 1-2 hours

Peak: 4-12 hours

23

Glargine (Lantus)

Long acting insulin

Onset: 1-1.5 hours

Peak: None

24

tolbutamide (Orinase)

PO hypoglycemic

incr insulin from beta cells

25

glipizide (Glucotrol)

PO hypoglycemic

incr insulin production

decr insulin resistance

26

metformin (Glucophage)

PO hypoglycemic

decr liver breakdown of glycogen to glucose

decr glucose absorption

incr insulin sensitivity

27

acarbose (Precose)

PO hypoglycemic

absorption of complex carbs delayed

28

Glucagon

Hyperglycemic hormone secreted by alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans

IM/SQ/IV inject to enhance glycogenolysis

Sx: emesis