Chapter 11

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Experiencing Health & Illness
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1

The Health-Illness Continuum

seeing health and illness as a graduated spectrum that cannot be divided into parts

2

Dunn's health grid

plots a person's status on the health-illness continuum against environmental conditions.

3

Neuman's continuum

Views health as an expression of living energy available to an individual

4

Biological factors:

include genetic makeup, gender, age and developmental stage

5

Nutrition

Diet influences human health

6

Physical activity:

healthy people are usually active people

7

Sleep and rest:

sleep nourishes health; most of the body's growth hormone is released during sleep

8

Meaningful Work:

Engaging in meaningful work promotes health and can defend against physical and mental breakdown.

9

Developmental influences on coping ability:

Developmental stage influences a person's ability to cope with stressors that tend to move him toward the illness end of the continuum.

10

Developmental influences on perceptions:

When disease, loss, or other disruptions occur at a younger age than expected, they change our perception of the event and may present a greater challenge to our coping skills than disruptions that are expected.

11

Lifestyle choices:

People who consider themselves healthy are usually those who make healthy lifestyle choices.

12

Tobacco use ______ recovery time from other illnesses, injuries, and surgery.

increases

13

Studies have indicated that drinking a glass of red wine each day can ___ the risk of heart disease and slow bone loss.

reduce

14

Excessive alcohol consumption damages:

the brain, liver, pancreas, intestines and neurological system and can lead to malnutrition

15

Personal relationships:

Family relationships can provide critical sustenance and preserve optimal wellness during the experience.

16

Culture:

Traditionally responded to illness with specific therapies aimed at treating a biophysical disorder

17

Nursing responds to:

the physical, emotional, mental and spiritual dimensions of illness

18

Environmental factors involve:

environmental pollutants, psychosocial environment

19

Finances:

Money buys access to healthcare and healthcare choices - which nourishes wellness.

20

Religions and beliefs:

can influence people's healthcare choices

21

What are health disruptions?

physical disease, injury, mental illness, pain, loss, impending death, competing demands, the unknown, imbalance, isolation.

22

As healthcare providers, we may easily forget how humiliating such "routine procedures" may be for the patient. How can you help relieve the disruption of disease and injury when you respect the patient's dignity?

Provide for privacy and allow them to make choices regarding their care

23

Why do people experience illness differently?

Its based on in terms of their response to life situations

24

There are five stages of illness behaviors that people move through as they cope with disruptions to health:

experiencing symptoms, sick role behavior, seeking professional care, dependence on others, and recovery.

25

Symptoms are:

a signal that illness has begun

26

Sick role behavior:

when the illness relieves you of normal duties, such as work, school or tasks at home

27

Seeking professional care:

you must determine you are ill and that professional care is required to treat the illness

28

Dependence on others:

When you accept the diagnosis and treatment of the healthcare provider you typically also accept the need to depend on others

29

Recovery:

the person gradually resumes independence and returns to normal roles and functioning

30

The nature of illness affects:

the way persons react to disruptions and respond to illness

31

Acute illness:

occurs suddenly and lasts for a limited amount of time

32

Chronic illness:

lasts for a long period of time, usually 6 months or more, often for a lifetime

33

Hardiness:

developing a very strong positive force to live and enjoying the ride

34

Hardy individuals are willing to:

seek out information and take initiative in dealing with life situations rather than sitting back and letting someone else control their lives.

35

Patients may fail to comply with a proposed healthcare regimen if:

healthcare providers develop a plan of care that has no cultural or personal relevance for the patient (or family).

36

How can I be a better communicator?

take time to communicate, identify the patient's main concern, develop your observation skills.

37

An analysis of the assessment data that you gather should also provide:

the information needed to describe related causal factors.

38

How can I honor each client's unique health/illness experience?

examine life's uncertainties, envision wellness for your clients and yourself, establish trust at your first patient contact

39

How can you make the transition smoother for patients admitted to the hospital or ambulatory care facility?

Prepare the room, greet the client, introduce yourself to the client and family, orient the client to the room and the unit, gather a health history, and establish a relationship with the client

40

A healing presence will:

never show up in a written care plan

41

How to provide a healing presence:

maintain trust during transitions by handoffs and transfers