Pediatric neurosensory disorders

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1

1.Classify and interpret signs and symptoms of hearing impairment.

Abnormal in infant No startle reaction, no speech by 2 years of age, No babbling by 7 months, not saying da or ma by 9 months

Children- Use gestures as opposed to verbalization, failure to develop intelligible speech by 24 months, monotone speech , lessened laughter, confused facial expressions.

2

Identify therapeutic management and incorporate interventions for children with hearing impairment, including complications

Hearing aids to amplify sound, surgical repair, be aware of types, basic care, and handling.

Common problem is acoustic feedback (whistling sound) ask to reinsert-may not fit in ear properly.

Cochlear implants-provides a sensation of hearing by passing the hair cells.

Teach parents about proper battery storage.

3

Other Therapeutic hearing impairment management.

Lipreading, cued speech, american sign language, speech therapy and additional aids.

4

SLO #3 List and discuss the common types of visual impairments in children and their manifestations. What is amblyopia and how is it treated?

Amblyopia- Lazy eye which reduces visual acuity in one eye. Retinas receive different images resulting in double vision and the brain accommodates by suppressing less intense image.

Treatment- Patch the better eye, vision usually improves in a few weeks but may take months or not work at all.

Maintenance treatment until about 9-10 years old to keep vision from regressing.

5

SLO #3 List and discuss the common types of visual impairments in children and their manifestations. What is strabismus and how is it treated?

Squint or cross eye, may result from muscle imbalance or paralysis, poor vision, nerve damage, or congenital defect.

Manifestations- Squints eyelids together or frowns, has difficulty focusing from one distance to another, inaccurate judgement in picking up objects, unable to see print or moving objects clearly, closes one eye to see, tilts head to one side, if combined with refractive errors, may see any of the manifestations listed form refractive errors.

Treatment-Depends on the cause may involve occlusion therapy, surgery to increase stimulation to weaker eye, early diagnosis

6

SLO #3 what is Conjunctivitis and how is it treated?

An infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva, types bacterial, viral, chlamydial, and allergic.

Treatment-Bacterial- abx eye drops, viral-anti viral drops ineffective, chlamydial- ABX therapy, Allergic-avoid allergen, artificial tears, antihistamines, and corticosteroids.

7

Summarize education to be included for a child with a visual impairment

  • Play and Socialization

–Can’t learn to play automatically

–Get toys that fit other senses

–Get toys to help with development

–Encourage to be around sighted individuals

–Blindisms

  • Self-stimulating activities such as body rocking, finger flicking, arm twirling
  • Discourage behavior - can restrict social acceptance
8

1.List, discuss, and prioritize nursing care for a child with acute otitis media.

Ottis media is inflammation of the middle ear without an explained cause.

Acute otitis media- rapid onset of inflammation of the middle ear (infection)

Otitis media with effusion- Inflammation and fluid in the middle ear without symptoms of acute infection.

Middle ear effusion- Fluid in the middle ear without reference to etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, or duration.

9

Otitis media therapeutic management

Collaborative care-Pharmacological or close observation antibiotics

Surgical- Incision to the tympanum to release pressure and exudate in the middle ear.

Prompt treatment to prevent perforation of the tympanic membrane.

10

Pharmacological treatment for otitis media?

Oral abx-Amoxicillan, augmentin, azithromycin, cephalosporin

Antipyretics

Narcotics for severe pain and discomfort