Chapter 8

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Guidelines for Healthy Eating
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1

A healthy diet provides:

enough of all essential nutrients to avoid deficiencies but not excessive amounts that may increase the risk of nutrient toxicities or chornic diseases

2

These 4 of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S. are associated with dietary excesses:

heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes

3

These 3 health problems are related to, at least in part, to dietary excesses:

obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia

4

A healthy diet has the potential to:

alleviate the high economic and personal costs of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia

5

Dietary Reference intakes is:

a series of 8 in-depth reports

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Dietary reference intakes cover:

vitamins, minerals, the energy nutrients, cholesterol, fiber, electrolytes and water

7

Dietary reference intake includes:

RDA's, EAR, AI, and UL

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RDA =

Recommended dietary allowances

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EAR =

Estimated average requirement

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AI =

Adequate intake

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UL =

Tolerable upper intake level

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DRI is based on

reviewing available scientific data, assessing nutrient function to reduce risk of chronic and other diseases, and evaluating nutrient consumption levels among U.S. and Candian populations

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DRI applies to:

various individuals and population groups

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Old RDAs have been replaced with the DRIs that incorporate:

an expanded focus of reducing the risk of chronic diseases associated with dietary excesses

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Recommended Dietary Allowances represent:

the average daily recommended intake to meet the nutrient requirements of: 97-98% of health individuals by life stages and gender

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RDAs are based on:

specific criteria indicators

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RDAs set:

high enough to account for daily variations in intake

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Estimated Average Requirement is the:

amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the requirement of half (50%) of healthy people in a lifestyle or gender group

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EAR are not based solely on:

the prevention of nutrient deficiencies

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Tolerable Upper Intake Level is:

the highest level of average daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population

21

TUL is:

not intended to be a recommended level of intake

22

AI is:

a set when an RDA cannot be determined due to lack of sufficient data on requirements

23

Adequate Intake is a:

recommended average daily intake level though to meet or exceed the needs of virtually all members of a life stage/gender group based on observed or experimentally determine estimates of nutrient intake by group of healthy people

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Primary purpose of the AI is:

as a goal for the nutrient intake of individuals

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AMDR =

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

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AMDR are:

broad ranges for each energy nutrient

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AMDR are expressed as:

a percentage of total calories consumed

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AMDR are associated with:

reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients

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Protein AMDR =

10-35%

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Carbohydrates AMDR =

45-65%

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Fat AMDR =

20-35%

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Dieticians use this more:

Estimated Energy Requirements

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EER =

Estimated Energy Requirements

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Estimated energy requirements are similar to:

EAR

35

Dietary Guidelines for Americans serves as:

the federal policy on nutrition

36

Dietary Guidelines covers:

5 overarching guidelines

37

Dietary guidelines features:

3 styles of healthy eating patterns

38

Within each style of guidelines there are:

12 different calorie ranges from 1000 to 3200 calories

39

Major themes of Dietary guidelines are to:

eat fewer calories, be more physically active, and make wiser food choices.

40

We teach people about RDIs by:

balance, moderation, nutrient density, limit calories for other uses, variety

41

MyPlate's message is to:

eat more fruit, vegetables and whole grains, eat less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol, limit sweets and salt, use alcohol in moderation, if at all, balance calorie intake with calorie expenditure, by physically active most days of the week.

42

Discretionary calories allow consumers to:

incorporate small amounts of calorie-dense foods into their eating plan and still meet nutrient needs without exceeding total calorie constraints

43

Discretionary calories may be eaten up by choosing foods within:

the existing plan that are high in fat or added sugar