Chapter 2

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Pharmacologic Principles
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1

Drug is:

any chemical that affects the physiologic process of a living organism

2

Pharmacology is:

the study or science of drugs

3

A drug will acquire at least ___ different names.

3

4

Chemical name:

describes the drug's chemical composition and molecular structure; hardly use

5

Generic name:

much simplier; used in the most official drug compendiums to list drugs

6

Trade name:

drug's registered trademark; indicates that its commercial use is restricted to the owner of the patent for the drug

7

Patent life is:

17 years

8

Pharmacologic:

mechanism of action

9

Therapeutic:

treat the signs

10

New drug development normally requires:

approx. 10 years

11

Manufacturer has remaining ____ years for sales profit before patent expires

7

12

Most of the drug profits serve to:

offset the multimillion-dollar costs for research and development of drug

13

Biosimilars:

a copy version of an already authorized biological product

14

Therapeutic equivalence:

when one drug in a class of several is the chosen preferred agent, even though the drugs do not have the same active ingredients

15

Drug classification:

drugs are grouped together based on their similar properties

16

Drug classification is grouped by:

structure, therapeutic us

17

Drug classification can have:

sub-classes

18

Three basic areas of pharmacology are:

pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

19

Pharmaceutics is:

the study of how various dosage forms influence the way in which the drug affects the body

20

Pharmacokinetics:

the study of what the body does to the drug

21

Pharmodynamics:

the study of what the drug does to the body

22

Pharmadynamics involves:

drug-receptor relationships

23

There are 3 phases of drug activity:

Pharmaceutical, phase, pharmacokinetic phase, and pharmacodynamics phase

24

Pharmaceutical phase is:

disintegration of dosage form; dissolution of drug in body

25

Pharmacokinetic phase:

absorption; distribution, metabolism, excretion

26

Pharmacodynamic phase:

drug-receptor interaction

27

Pharmacotherapeutics :

also known as therapeutics; focuses ont he clinical use of drugs to prevent and treat diseases

28

Drug actions:

the process involved in interaction between a drug and body cells

29

Who regulates the approval and clinical use of all drugs in the U.S.?

The USFDA; United States Food and Drug administration

30

Off-labeling prescribing are:

drugs that have non-FDA-approved indications

31

Toxicology is:

the study of the adverse effects of drugs and other chemicals on living systems

32

Toxic effects are often:

an extension of a drug's therapeutic action

33

Pharmacognosy is:

the study of natural drug sources

34

Pharmacoeconomics:

focuses on the economic aspects of drug therapy

35

Dissolution:

dissolving of solid dosage forms and their absorption from GI tract

36

Dosage form determines the:

rate at which drug dissolution occurs

37

Solid form:

tablet, capsule, powder

38

Liquid form:

solution or suspension

39

Liquid form is absorbed ______ than solid form

faster

40

Enteric-coasted tablets

have a coating that prevents them from being broken down the acidic pH environment of the stomach and are not absorbed until they reach the alkaline pH in the intestines

41

Particular size within a tablet or capsule can make different dosage forms of the same drug dissolve at different rates or become absorbed at different rates therefore:

have different times to onset of action

42

Combination dosage forms contain:

multiple drugs in 1 dose

43

ER =

extended release

44

Extended release comes in:

tablets and capsules

45

Extended release medications release:

drug molecules in the patient's GI tract over a prolonged period

46

Extended release require:

fewer daily dosease

47

SR =

Slow release or sustained release

48

SA =

Sustained action

49

CR =

controlled release

50

XL =

extended length

51

XT =

extended time

52

Granules are usually for:

E.R.; should not be crushed or chewed

53

What forms of medications can be added to soft foods?

capsules, powder, or liquid contents

54

Sublingual tables are:

absorbed through the oral mucosa

55

Subligual tablets can be dissolved:

on the tongue, under the tongue or buccal pocket

56

Topicals:

work directly on skin

57

Parental forms:

dosage forms administered via injection

58

pH of injections must be very similar to:

that of blood

59

Parent drug:

the chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body into its active or inactive metabolites

60

Prodrug:

a parent drug that is not pharmacologically active itself; it is then metabolized to pharmacologically active metabolites

61

Absorption is:

the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood stream of distribution to the tissues

62

Bioavailability:

the term used to express the extent of drug absorption

63

First pass effect

The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the GI tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream.

64

First pass effect reduces the bioavailability of the drug to:

less than 100%

65

Drugs administered by the mouth have a bioavailability of:

less than 100%

66

Drugs administered intravenous route are:

100% bioavailable

67

Bioequivalent:

when 2 drug products have the same bioavailability and same concentration of active ingredient.

68

What are the 3 basic routes of administration?

enteral, parenteral, topical

69

Enteral route means:

the drug is absorbed into the systemic circulation through the mucosa of the stomach and/or small intestine

70

Short bowel syndrome:

drug absorption may be altered in patients who have had portions of the small intestine removed because of disease

71

Gastric dumping is:

medication absorption that is altered because stomach contents are delivered to the intestines more rapidly than usual

72

Sublingual is:

absorbed into the highly vascularized tissue under the tongue - the oral mucosa

73

Buccal route:

absorbed into the highly vascularized tissue under the tongue - the oral mucosa

74

Parenteral route is:

the fastest route

75

Intravenous injection delivers the drug:

directly into the circulation, where it is distributed with the blood throughout the body

76

Intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injections are:

absorbed more slowly than intravenously

77

Drugs can be injected:

intradermally, subcutaneously, intraarterially, intramuscularly, intrathecally, intraarticularly, intravenously

78

Subcutaneous routes:

injections into the fatty subcutaneous tissues under the dermal layer of skin

79

Intradermal routes:

injections under the more superficial skin layers immediately underneath the epidermal layer of skin and into the dermal layer

80

intramuscular injections are:

given into the muscle beneath the subcutaneous fatty tissue

81

Muscles have a ____ blood supply than the skin

greater

82

Topical routes:

involves application of medications to various body surfaces

83

transdermal route:

delivery through adhesive patches

84

inhaled route

delivered to the lungs as micrometer-sized drug particles

85

Distribution

refers to the transport of a drug by the bloodstream to its site of action

86

Which areas have a rapid distribution?

heart, liver, kidneys and brain

87

Which areas have a slower distribution?

Muscle, skin and fat

88

Primary site of metabolism

liver

89

Excretion

elimination of drugs from the body

90

What is the primary organ responsible for excretion?

Kidney

91

What other organs play a role in excretion?

Liver and bowel

92

Half-life

is the time required tof 1/2 of a given drug to be removed from the body

93

How long does it take for the body to have stead state of medication?

5 half-lives

94

steady state refers to:

the physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose