Pediatric growth and development
Age by which the birth weight is doubled
Age by which the birth weight is tripled.
by the first year
Identity length and height increase during 1 to 6 months.
1 inch per month
length in 6-12 months
occurs in spurts and the average is 25.5 inches long.
When do the fontanels close
posterior closes by 4-6 weeks and anterior closes by 18 months.
Gross motor skills developmental ages up to one year.
head control 4-6 months, rolling over abd to back 5 months and back to abd 6 months, sitting with support 7 months, sitting without support 8 months, crawling and creeping 9 months, stand with support 7 months, and standing without support 11-12 months.
Fine motor skills 1st year.
palmar whole hand grasp 4-5 months, hand to mouth 3 months, transfer objects hand to hand 7 months, pincer grasp 10 months.
Incoming teeth times.
lower incisors 4-6 months 2 upper central incisor 6-10 months
Focusing on a object 1 month, following an object 3 months, eye hand coordination 4 months.
Give rationale for introducing solid foods between 4-6 months
When baby has head control, and have tongue motions
identify sequence and intervals for introducing solid foods
- Introduce 1 at a time – check for reactions (4-6 days apart)
- Vegies before fruits b/c fruits are sweet
- Ween them of the bottle
- Give them solid food before bottle – not filled up on milk
Amount of solid food increases = milk intact decreases
Describe the sleep pattern in infancy
- Birth – sleep, eat, bathroom, sleep
- 3-4 months – sleep 9 hours
- Breast fed babies wake up more often in the night
What is Separation anxiety and when is it common
- Child thinks that if objects disappear – it doesn’t come back
- 4-8 months it becomes prominent
- 11-12 months – anticipate parent departure
What is Stranger anxiety and when is it common
6-8 months – clinging to parents, crying and turning away from strangers
Age when weight is quadrupled
2.5 years and then slows considerably
Increase in height toddler 1-3 years.
- Grow 3 inches a year
- Grow in their legs the most
Give examples of Gross motor skills as a toddler 1-3 years
- 12-13 months – walking w/ a wide stance
- 18 months – try to run but fall easily
- 2 years – walk up and down steps
- 5 years – jump on their feet
Give examples of Fine motor skills toddler
- 12months: grasp object in their head
- 18 months: throw ball over head
Identify the development capabilities that indicate readiness for toilet training:
- Show interest in the bathroom
- Pulling at genitals
- Hiding when having BM
- Voluntary control of anal and urinary sphincters: 18-20 months
Give rationale for bowel training before bladder training
- The anal sphincter is stronger
- Sensation of BM is stronger than urination
- Explain how parental attitudes related to elimination can influence child’s attitudes
- Don’t scream at them
- Child is not going to be in trouble
List the favorable outcomes of Sense of Autonomy
- Free will
- Dressing themselves
- Picking their own food
- Picking tv shows
- Feeding themselves
- Giving themselves a bath
- Being helpful around the house – chore charts
Explain how the “terrible two’s” uses the following behaviors in striving for autonomy:
- Start knowing the word NO or ME DO, not an expression of being stubborn but child’s best way to express themselves
- Maintain schedules for children, provides a sense of comfort
- Temper tantrums –
- Child ability to control
emotions, strong drive to master autonomy
- Remain consistent, ignore behavior, remain present
- Child ability to control emotions, strong drive to master autonomy
what is parallel play?
- Playing w/ the same toy by themselves
- Less emphasis on gender stereotype toys
What us physiological anorexia?
Happens around 18 months – most children manifest
decreased appetite and become picky eaters. Like to dictate
feeding schedules, nothing can be touching
- Finger foods
- Have plenty of options
Describe the sleep patterns for the toddler
Sleep 11-12 hours a day, refuse to go to bed, night terrors, fear about monsters
- What are some common fears of the toddler
- Daily stressors
- Pressures of toilet training
- Sibling births
- Experience of losses
- Separation of parents
Physical growth in a preschool aged child (3-5 years) Identify changes in the average weight gain per year:
- Slows and stabilizes
- 2-3kg per year
pre school aged child height growth.
Height: Height remains steady
- 5 – 3.5 inches per year
- Grow in their legs rather than trunk
Physical Milestones in preschool aged give examples of gross motor skills.
- Running, kicking balls, jumping on one foot
- Age 4 - skip, hop and catch a ball
Physical Milestones in preschool aged give examples of fine motor skills.
- Getting dressed
- Writing their name
- Increasing skillful manipulation
Behavior milestones in a preschool aged child 3-5 years old?
- Magical thinking
- Believe that their thoughts are powerful
- Can think abstractly about things
Play in a preschool aged child?
Group play and imagination play start kicking in.
- Describe language from 3-5 years:
- Becomes more sophisticated
- 3-4 years – 3 or 4-word sentences
- 4 years – 5-word sentences
What age is stuttering common and what can we do: Dysfluency
- They are thinking faster than they can talk
- More in boys than girls
- Usually resolves in its own
Sleep in the preschool aged child?
sleeps about 12 hours per night and naps dwindle and waking during the night is common.
Describe normal fears for the preschooler
- Fear objects are alive
- Object can bite them
Physical growth in a school aged child (6-12 years old)
- 2-3 kg/year
- Average of 5cm per year
- Gain 30-60cm over entire school age period
- Prepubescence: (not a test question)
- Age Span-
2 years at the end of the middle child hood and ends at 13th birthday
9-13 years old
Social development in a school aged child (6-12) years old
- Peer Group
- Describe the impact of the peer group on
the school-age child’s self-identify
- Peers have the biggest impact on a child’s self-image. Based on how they interact and are treated by their peers, they will begin to identify themselves in a certain way (sports player, good at school, pretty, funny)
- Describe the impact of the peer group on the school-age child’s self-identify
The school-age period is often described as the “the age of great comparison” How does this description relate to the school-age child’s body image
Children of this age are constantly comparing themselves to others. They are flooded w/ images of the ideal body styles for both genders, and if they see they don’t look like that and other do, it can produce a negative body image
Adolescence age span
13-19 years old.
School aged age span
6-12 years old
preschool age span
3-5 years old
Toddler age span
1-3 years old
Infancy age span
1-12 months old
Adolescent developmental changes
- Girls- start have pubic hair, breast bumps, and menstruation (9.5-14.5 years old)
- Boys- penis growth, pubic, hair, deeper voices, (10.5-16 years old_
- Describe the adolescent growth spurt experienced by males and females
- Describe the adolescent growth spurt experienced by males and
- Girls- 9.5-14.5 years old
- Boys- 10.5-16 years old
- Linear growth
- Girls- 2-8inches
- Boys- 4-12inches
- Girls- 15.5-55.5 ponds
- Boys- 15.5-66 pounds
What is abstract thinking?
Ability to think about objects, principles, and ideas that are not physically present.
Define adolescent egocentrism
when a child believes that the world is centered around themselves. They are not concerned w/ or do not understand how others can feel
Frued infancy stage consists of what and what age group?
Oral (0-18 months) sucking, stimulation with mouth
Freud's theory on the Toddler stage
Anal (18-3.5 years)
Post training trying to control their environment
Freud's theory on preschool aged children
Phallic stage (3.5-6 years) aware of genitals and opposite parent.
Freuds theory on school aged?
Boys w Boys, Girls w girls, develop relationships with their peers consequences of actions.
Freuds theory on adolescents?
Genital (Puberty to adulthood)
Sexual interest and pleasure and what they want to do with their lives.
Eriksons theory on infancy?
Trust vs Mistrust-Child determines it can rely on the parents/care givers, bonding
Eriksons theory on toddlers?
Autonomy vs shame and doubt- Child builds their self esteem, potty training, become more independent praise them for doing things well, and give them choices.
Erik sons theory on the preschool aged child
Initiative vs guilt-Child learns what things are acceptable, role playing, consequences for actions, introducing them to new people
Eriksons theory on the school aged child?
Industry vs inferiority - Starting to express creativity and work on social skills, build self esteem.
Erik sons theory on the adolescent child
Identity vs role confusion child figures out who they are, experiment to try and figure out identity.
Piaget theory on infancy
Sensorimotor- object permanence, what is right in front of them, learn from their environment.
Piaget theory on toddler and preschool?
Pre operational- ability to make association between words, developing memory and imagination and they think egocentrically.
Piaget theory on school aged children?
Concrete- ability to think logically, be able to play in sports make rational decision, take things literally.
Piagets theory on adolescents?
Formal operational ability to think abstractly, have deductive reasoning, and feeling of invincibility
Watch other children play
playing by themselves
Playing with same toys as person next to them but independent.
Engaging in similar activities w/o organization, follow along with each other.
Organized playing, playing sports.