Animal Nutrition Exam 1
sustenance of life, or of basic processes of life
chemical conversion in cells from one substance to another
breaking down of chemical nutrients, generates chemical energy and heat
making new chemicals for structure and function
periods of reduced food intake
overeating for long periods of time
What are the consequences of gluttony for the body condition score of an animal?
What is the National Academy of Sciences?
A body of scientists from all fields who are elected
What is the National Research Council ?
Members of the academy that do research at the request of the federal government
Which ones of the six basic nutrients can provide energy?
carbohydrates, fat, protein (which is made of amino acids)
Can water provide energy to an animal?
Ability to do work
how is energy measured (what units) in food:
What is the purpose of knowing aboutenergy when comparing foods?
Common measurable basis for comparing the value of foods
Which chemical elements are found in carbohydrates
- Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Which chemical elements are found in Fats
- Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Which chemical elements are found in Amino Acids
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
What type of living constituents contains the most complex (polymer) carbohydrates?
Define “essential fatty acid” and list three of them:
must be obtained from the diet, cannot be made in the body
Define ATP (what do the letters stand for):
Adenosine triphosphate- major energy molecule used by cells
Are fats only useful for energy (remember the blubber mitt lab in zoology…)?
No, also for structure and functions involving cell membrane, nervous tissue, hormone production, immunity and inflammation
What is the major purpose of the TCA (Krebs) cycle in energy production? (What major important molecules does the TCA cycle contribute to the next step of oxidative phosphorylation….also known as ETC)?
Produces products (ie NADH2) which are brought to the electron transport chain to make ATP
What governs the production of proteins from amino acids? (Hints: it’s a code!)
Genes (short lengths of DNA)
What are some of the functions of vitamins? Minerals?
- Vitamins are involved in a number of metabolic processes, serving often as co-factors
- Minerals are involved in structure and numerous physiologic functions such as coagulation and nerve impulse conduction
List the functions of water:
- Nutrient transport
- Waste excretion via urine
- Chemical medium for reactions
- Heat absorber (removal of heat)
- Ion balance
What are the 3 sources of water used to supply the body?
Food, drink , metabolic water produced from Electron Transport Chain reactions
How is water requirement related to the metabolic rate?
The higher the metabolic rate, the more water is required, 1 ml for every Kcal
What are the principle routes of water loss?
Urine and feces
How is the amount of water in the body regulated? (By what internal mechanism?)
Thirst center in brain and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone from the pituitary gland acting on the kidneys to conserve/reabsorb water )
What is dehydration?
Insufficient total body water (lack of H2O in body tissue)
Why and when (at what percent dehydration) does an animal feel thirsty?
- Why – need to keep ion and oxygen balance to keep up cell function
- When – if greater than 1% of body water is lost
What conditions are associated with too much water in the body?
- Edema or hydropsy (i.e., in heart disease or kidney failure when kidney can’t put out urine quickly enough)
- Hydremia or water intoxication – happens sometimes with puppies or psychogenic polydipsia