Animal Nutrition Exam 1

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 2 years ago by Bmdesrochers
12 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Nutrition

sustenance of life, or of basic processes of life

2

Metabolism

chemical conversion in cells from one substance to another

3

Catabolism

breaking down of chemical nutrients, generates chemical energy and heat

4

Anabolism

making new chemicals for structure and function

5

Fasting

periods of reduced food intake

6

Gluttony

overeating for long periods of time

7

What are the consequences of gluttony for the body condition score of an animal?

obesity

8

What is the National Academy of Sciences?

A body of scientists from all fields who are elected

9

What is the National Research Council ?

Members of the academy that do research at the request of the federal government

10

Which ones of the six basic nutrients can provide energy?

carbohydrates, fat, protein (which is made of amino acids)

11

Can water provide energy to an animal?

No

12

Define energy

Ability to do work

13

how is energy measured (what units) in food:

Calories

14

What is the purpose of knowing aboutenergy when comparing foods?

Common measurable basis for comparing the value of foods

15

Which chemical elements are found in carbohydrates

  • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
16

Which chemical elements are found in Fats

  • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
17

Which chemical elements are found in Amino Acids

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

18

What type of living constituents contains the most complex (polymer) carbohydrates?

Plants

19

Define “essential fatty acid” and list three of them:

must be obtained from the diet, cannot be made in the body

  1. linoleic
  2. linolenic
  3. arachidonic
20

Define ATP (what do the letters stand for):

Adenosine triphosphate- major energy molecule used by cells

21

Are fats only useful for energy (remember the blubber mitt lab in zoology…)?

No, also for structure and functions involving cell membrane, nervous tissue, hormone production, immunity and inflammation

22

What is the major purpose of the TCA (Krebs) cycle in energy production? (What major important molecules does the TCA cycle contribute to the next step of oxidative phosphorylation….also known as ETC)?

Produces products (ie NADH2) which are brought to the electron transport chain to make ATP

23

What governs the production of proteins from amino acids? (Hints: it’s a code!)

Genes (short lengths of DNA)

24

What are some of the functions of vitamins? Minerals?

  • Vitamins are involved in a number of metabolic processes, serving often as co-factors
  • Minerals are involved in structure and numerous physiologic functions such as coagulation and nerve impulse conduction
25

List the functions of water:

  • Structure
  • Nutrient transport
  • Waste excretion via urine
  • Chemical medium for reactions
  • Heat absorber (removal of heat)
  • Ion balance
  • Lubrication
26

What are the 3 sources of water used to supply the body?

Food, drink , metabolic water produced from Electron Transport Chain reactions

27

How is water requirement related to the metabolic rate?

The higher the metabolic rate, the more water is required, 1 ml for every Kcal

28

What are the principle routes of water loss?

Urine and feces

29

How is the amount of water in the body regulated? (By what internal mechanism?)

Thirst center in brain and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone from the pituitary gland acting on the kidneys to conserve/reabsorb water )

30

What is dehydration?

Insufficient total body water (lack of H2O in body tissue)

31

Why and when (at what percent dehydration) does an animal feel thirsty?

  • Why – need to keep ion and oxygen balance to keep up cell function
  • When – if greater than 1% of body water is lost
32

What conditions are associated with too much water in the body?

  • Edema or hydropsy (i.e., in heart disease or kidney failure when kidney can’t put out urine quickly enough)
  • Hydremia or water intoxication – happens sometimes with puppies or psychogenic polydipsia