Chapter 2

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Carbohydrates
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1

Carbohydates are composed of the elements:

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

2

Carbohydrates are abbreviated as:

CHO

3

CHO stands for:

carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

4

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are known as:

Basic sugar molcules

5

Basic sugar molecules are classified as:

simple sugars or complex carbohydrates

6

Simple sugars contain:

only one (mono-) or two (di-) sugar saccharide molecules

7

Simple sugar vary in:

sweetness and sources

8

Monosaccharides are:

glucose, fructose, and galactose

9

Monosaccharides are absorbed:

"as is" without undergoing digestion

10

Monosaccharides are most common in foods with hexoses that contain:

6 carbon atoms

11

Disaccharides need to be:

broken into their component monosaccharides before they can be absorbed

12

An example of disaccharides are:

sucrose (table sugar), maltose, and lactose

13

Glucose is:

simplest sugar

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Glucose circulates through:

the blood to provide energy for body cells

15

Glucose is a component of:

all disaccharides

16

Glucose is virtually the:

sole constituent of complex carbohydrates

17

Glucose is a sugar that:

the body converts all other digestible carbs.

18

Complex carbohydrates are composed of:

hundreds to thousands of glucose molecules linked together

19

complex carbohydrates are also known as:

polysaccharides

20

Polysaccharides consists of:

many (poly) sugar molecules.

21

Polysaccharides do not taste sweet because:

their molecules are too large to fit on the tongue's taste bud receptors that sense sweetness

22

Starch, glycogen and fiber are types of:

polysaccharides

23

Plants synthesize glucose through:

photosynthesis

24

The glucose not used by the plant for immediate energy is:

stored in the form of starch - in seeds, roots or stems

25

Types of starch are:

grains, potatoes, legumes, and other starchy veggies

26

Types of grains are:

wheat, rice, corn, barely, millet, sorghum, oats and rye

27

Glycogen is:

animal (including human) version of starch

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Glycogen is stored carb available for:

energy as needed.

29

Humans have a limited supply of glycogen stored in:

liver and muscles

30

Liver glycogen:

breaks down and released glucose into the blood stream between meals to maintain normal blood glucose levels and provide fuel for tissues

31

Muscle glycogen:

do not share their supply of glycogen, but use for their own energy needs

32

There is virtually no diet source of glycogen in meat because:

any glycogen stored in animal tissue is quickly converted to lactic acid at the time of slaughter

33

Fiber is found:

only in plants as a component of plant cell walls or intercellular structure

34

Fiber is a group name for:

polysaccharides

35

Fiber cannot:

be digested and absorbed in the human small intestine

36

Fiber is often referred to as:

"roughage" or "bulk"

37

Types of fiber are:

cellulose, pectin, gums, hemicellulos, inulin, oligosaccharides, fructans, lignin, some resistant starch

38

Fiber can be categorized as:

insoluble, soluble

39

Insoluble fiber:

absorbs water to make stools larger and softer and speed intestinal transit time

40

Soluble fiber:

dissolve in water to a gel-like substance

41

Soluble fiber is credited with:

slowing gastric emptying time to promote a feeling of fullness, delaying and blunting the rise in postprandial serum glucose and lowering serum cholesterol

42

Types of food that are soluble:

oatmeal, legumes, lentils, citrus fruits

43

Types of foods that are insoluble:

whole grains, bran, the skins and seeds of fruits and veggies

44

Dietary fiber:

the intact and naturally occurring fiber in plants

45

Functional fiber:

fiber that has been isolated or extracted from plants and added to food, such as insulin added to some yogurt

46

Total fiber:

is the sum of dietary and functional fiber

47

The rationale for discontinuing soluble and insoluble fiber is that:

the amounts of soluble and insoluble fibers measured in a mixed diet are dependent on methods of analysis that are not able to exactly replicate human digestion

48

It is commonly assumed that fiber does not provide any:

calories

49

Why does fiber not provide any calories?

Because it is not truly digested by human enzymes

50

Fiber may actually:

trap macronutrients eaten at the same time and prevent them from being absorbed.

51

Most fibers are fermented by:

bacteria in the colon, to produce carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, and short-chain fatty acids, which serve as a source of energy (calories) for mucosal lining of the colon.

52

Sources of carbohydrates would be found as:

Natural sugar in fruits and milk, starch in grains, veggies, legumes, and nuts; added sugars in foods with empty calories

53

Servings of most of commonly consumed grains, fruit and vegetable contain:

only 1 to 3 g of dietary fiber.

54

Grains are synonymous with:

carbohydrates

55

Grains consists of:

grains and products made with flours from grains

56

Grains are classified as:

"whole" or "refined"

57

Whole grains consists of:

the entire kernel of a grain

58

Phytonutrients are also known as:

phytochemicals

59

Phytonutrients are:

bioactive, nonnutrient plant compounds associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease.

60

Whole grains can be eaten as a:

whole complete food or milled into flour to be used as an ingredient

61

An example of a whole complete food would be:

oatmeal, brown rice, and popcorn

62

An example of flour to be used as an ingredient would be:

Bread, cereal, pasta, and baked goods

63

Whole grains must have the:

same proportions of the three original parts

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3 original parts of whole grains would be:

bran, endosperm, and the germ.

65

Bran:

provides fiber, antioxidants, B vitamins, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium and phytonutrients; is the tough outercoating

66

Endosperm:

supplies starch, protein, and small amounts of vitamins and minerals; is the largest portion of kernel.

67

Germ:

smallest portion of kernel - contains B vitamins, some protein, unsaturated fat, vitamin E, antioxidants and phytonutrients; is the embryo

68

The unsaturated fat makes whole wheat flour more:

susceptible to rancidity than refined flour

69

Bran cereals and wheat germ are not whole grains because:

they come from only one part of the whole

70

"Refined" grains:

have most of the bran and germ removed

71

Refined grains are:

rich in starch, but lack the fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, trace minerals, unsaturated fat, and most of the phytonutrients found in whole grains

72

Enrichment in refined grains means:

adding back certain nutrients to specific levels that were lost during processing.

73

Fortified in refined grains means:

adding nutrients that were not naturally present in the food or were present in significant amounts

74

Vegetables such as starch and some sugars provide:

the majority of calories in vegetables, but the content varies widely among individual veggies

75

Almost all calories in fruit come from:

the natural sugars fructose and glucose.

76

The exceptions of fruit that get their natural sugars from fructose and glucose are:

avocado, olives, and coconut

77

Avocado, olives and coconut get their natural sugars from:

fat

78

Milk is considered:

protein

79

More of milk's calories come from carbs in form of:

lactose

80

Added sugars are:

empty calories

81

Empty calories provide:

calories with few or no nutrients

82

Cooked starch begins digestion by:

salivary amylase

83

Cooked starch has a:

small effect on disgestion

84

The stomach:

churns and mixes its content

85

What halts any residual effect of amylase?

Acid medium

86

Fiber delays:

gastric emptying

87

Fiber provides

Satiety

88

Satiety is the feeling of:

fullness and satisfaction

89

Gut microbiota is also known as:

gut flora

90

Gut microbiota is the:

microorganisms that inhibit the gut

91

Most carb digestion and absorption occur in the:

small intestine

92

Pancreatic amylase is:

secreted into the intestine by the way of the pancreatic duct

93

Pancreatic amylase reduces:

polysaccharides to shorter glucose chains and maltose

94

Disaccharidose enzymes is found on:

the surface of the intestinal cells

95

Disaccharidase enzymes split maltose, sucrose and lactose into:

monosaccharides

96

Monosaccharides are absorbed through:

intestinal mucosa cells and travel to the liver via the portal vein

97

Most starches and all sugars are digested within:

1-4 hours after eating

98

Small amounts of starch that have not been fully digested pass:

into the colon and are excreted into the stools; the fibers advance to the large intestines

99

Postprandial means

following a meal

100

Metabolism occurs:

postprandial

101

In the liver, fructose and galatose are converted to:

glucose

102

The liver releases glucose into:

the bloodsteam, where its level is held fairly constant by the action of hormones

103

A rise in blood glucose concentration after eating causes:

the pancreas to secrete insulin

104

The pancreas moves glucose:

out of blood stream and into cells.

105

Glycemic response is:

the effect a food has on the blood glucose concentration; how quickly the glucose level rises, how high it goes and how long it takes to return to normal.

106

Glycemic index is:

a numeric measure of the glycemic response of 50g of a food sample; the higher the number, the higher the glycemic response.

107

A food's glycemic response is actually influenced by many variables including:

the amounts of fat, fiber and acid in the food, degree of processing, the method of preparation, the amount eaten, the degree of ripeness (for fruits and veggies) and whether other foods are eaten at the same time.

108

Glycemic index is on a scale of ____ to _____.

0 to 100.

109

Glycemic index base on:

How quickly they raise blood glucose levels after eating

110

The amount of carbohydrate contained in a typical portion of food also influences:

glycemic response

111

The glycemic load was created to define:

a food's impact on blood glucose levels more accurately.

112

Glycemic load is a:

food's glycemic index multiplied by the amount of carbohydrate it contains to determine impact on blood glucose levels.

113

Glycemic load is not a reliable tool for:

choosing a healthy diet

114

Low glycemic index promotes:

significant weight loss or helps control appetite are unfounded

115

Glucose metabolism is a:

dynamic state of balance between burning glucose for energy and using glucose to build other compounds

116

Glucose metabolism is a process that is:

a continuous response to the supply of glucose from food and the demand for glucose for energy needs

117

The primary function of carbs is to:

provide energy for cells

118

Glucose is burned more efficiently and more completely than:

either protein or fat

119

Glucose does not leave an:

end product that the body must excrete