Micro Ch 1

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1

Microbiology

study of microorganisms

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Single Cell example

Yeast, bacateria

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Multi cell example

Fungi, molds

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Microorganisms

-require to be seen with microscope

-unicellular, clumps can be seen with naked eye

-can carry out life processes independently, others obligate parasites (animals, humans)

-without a host they die

-vary in size

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Prokaryotic cells

-no nucleus & organelles

-house of DNA

-smaller cell

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Eukaryotic Cells

-nucleus & organelles

-anything but bacteria

-larger cell

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Six main types of microorganisms

-bacterium,

-fungus

-algae

-virus

-protozoan

-helminth

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viruses

-can eventually lead to cancer

-smallest and least complex

-more like crystals of protein & nucleic acid rather than living cells

-infectious agents (pass through filters known to stop bacteria)

-not cellular so not prokaryotic or eukaryotic

-keep mutating, changing self, cannot get rid of

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eubacteria

-high diverse prokaryotes (all bacteria)

-cell walls contain peptidoglycan

-reproduce by binary fission

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Archaea Bacteria

-diverse prokaryotes

-old/ancient

-lack peptidoglycan

-reproduce binary fission

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Protozoa

-eukaryotic, unicellular

-no cell wall

-chemoheterotrophic aerobes (feed in others like tissues/fluids)

-absortive, ingestive

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Algae

-eukaryotic

-uni or multi cellular

-cellulosic cell walls

-photosynthetic aerobes

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Fungi

-eukaryotic

-larger than bacteria

-uni or multi cellular

-chitinous cell walls

-chemoheterotrophic

-absorptive nutrient uptake

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Helminths

-eukaryotic

-parasitic worms

-multicellular animals

-lack cell walls (possess organs and organ system)

-sexual only reproduction

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Importance of microbes

-20 to 50% of the adult population will contract STD in life

-Diarrhea kills more people world wide than almost any other disease

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How many cells

-10 trillion in human body

-100 trillion in and on body

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Environmental health- microbes necessary for?

-making nutrients available from non living sources

-decomposition (nutrients recycling)

-providing energy to ecosystems

-Microbes are involved in photosynthesis

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Without microorganisms we would

-have no oxygen to breathe

-nothing to eat

-not be able to utilize the energy in food even if we could it eat

-not be able move without constantly tripping over bodies of dead organisms

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Microbes are

-producers

-nitrogen fixers

-decomposers

-symbionts and endosymbionts

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Microorganisms are used to

-ferment useful of chemicals (ethanol, acetone)

-produce certain food (wine, cheese)

-produce of recombinant products (recombinant insulin, human growth hormone)

-destroy wastes (sewage)

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Sterile

completely eliminating all spores and bacteria

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Disinfectant

does not kill spores but kills everything else

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Taxonomy

classification

identification

nomenclature

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Classification

-developed after five-kingdom system

-bacteria-true bacteria

-archaea- odd bacteria that live in extreme environments

-Eukarya- have a nucleus & organelles

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Domains

Eukarya,

Bacteria

Archaea

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Eukarya (domain)

-Protista (Kingdom)

-Fungi (Kingdom)

-Plantae (Kingdom)

-Animalia (Kingdom)

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How many kingdoms

six

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Know the order

Doman

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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Identification

Process of discovering and recording the traits of organisms

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Nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature

-Genus -Bascillus, always capitalized

-species- subtilis, lowercase