Anatomy II Lab Exam I Flashcards


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1

Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells, RBCs)

Description: Biconcave, enucleate disc; orange-pink color diameter 7-8um

Function: Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

2

Leukocytes (WBCs): Neutrophil (Granulocytes)

Description: Nucleus multi lobed; pale red and blue cytoplasmic granules; diameter 10-12um

Function: Phagocytize pathogens or debris

3

Leukocytes (WBCs): Eosinophil

Description: Nucleus bilobed; red cytoplasmic granules; diameter 10-14um

Function: Kill parasitic worms; slightly phagocytic, complex role in allergy and asthma

4

Leukocytes (WBCs): Basophil

Description: Nucleus lobed; large blue-purple cytoplasmic granules; diameter 10-14um

Function: Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin, an anticoagulant

5

Leukocytes (WBCs): Lymphocyte (Agranulocytes)

Description: Nucleus spherical or indented; pale blue cytoplasm; diameter 5-17um

Function: Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibody production

6

Leukocytes (WBCs): Monocyte

Description: Nucleus U- or kindly-shaped; gray-blue cytoplasm; diameter 14-24um

Function: Develop into macrophages in tissues and phagocytize pathogens or debris

7

Platelets

Description: Cytoplasmic fragments containing granules; stain deep purple; diameter 2-4um

Function: Seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting

8

Neutrophil Picture

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9

Eosinophil Picture

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Basophil Picture

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Small Lymphocyte Picture

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Monocyte Picture

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13

The Sionatrial (SA) node (pacemaker)....

1. Generates impulses

14

Atrioventrical (AV) node...

2. Where the impulses paused (0.1 sec)

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Atrioventricular (AV) bundle...

3. Conducts the impulses to the bundle branches.

16

The bundle branches....

4. Conduct the impulses through the inter ventricular septum.

17

Subendiocardial conducting network...

5. Depolarizes the contractile cells of both ventricles.

18

Agglutinins

A substance that causes particles to coagulate to form a thickened mass.

19

Anemia

A condition marked by a deficiency.y of RBCs or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.

20

Antibodies

Plasma proteins.

21

Antigens

A toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.

22

Coagulation

The action or process of a liquid, especially blood, changing to a solid or semi-solid state.

23

Leukopenia

A reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases.

24

Packed cell volume

The volume of the blood cells in a sample of blood after it has been centrifuged in the hematocrit, normally it amounts to 45 percent of the blood.

25

Polycethemia

An abnormally increased concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, through either reduction of plasma volume or increase in red cell numbers.

26

Hematocrit normal value for males

47.0 +/- 5

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Hematocrit normal value for females

42.0 +/- 5

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Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate for Men

0-15 mm/hr

29

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate for Women

0-20 mm/hr

30

Hemoglobin Concentration for Women

12 to 16g

31

Hemoglobin Concentration for Men

13 to 18 g

32

Hemoglobin Concentration

12 to 18 g per 100ml of blood.

33

Cholesterol Concentration

130 to 200mg per 100ml of plasma.

34

Flow of Blood Through the Heart

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35

Brachycardia

Less than 60 bpm at rest.

36

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of the heart.

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Fibrillation

Rapid, uncoordinated heart contractions that makes the heart useless as a pump.

38

Functional Synctium

End result is so heart can contract in union with each other to be efficient pump.

39

Intrinsic Conduction System/Nodal System

System that controls initiation of contraction of heart independent of nervous system.

40

Sinoatrial Node

Pacemaker of the heart.

41

Tachycardia

More than 100bpm at rest.

42

P wave

Indicates atrial depolarization

43

QRS complex

Indicates ventricular depolarization

44

T wave

Indicates ventricular repolarization

45

Depolarization

Contraction

46

Repolarization

Relaxation

47

Pulse

Alternating surges of pressure (expansion and then recoil) in an artery that occur with each contraction and relaxation of left ventricle.

48

Pulse Pressure

Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.

49

Apical Pulse

A measure of cardiac function that is completed by placing a stethoscope at the apex of the heart and counting for one minute. Actual counting of heartbeats.

50

Pulse Deficit

Difference between values observed.

51

Blood Pressure

Pressure the blood exerts against any unit area of the blood vessel walls, and it's generally measures in the arteries.

52

Diastole

Period of heart relaxation

53

Systole

Period of heart contraction.

54

Mean arterial pressure

The average pressure in a patient's arteries during one cardiac cycle.

55

Murmurs

Abnormal heart sounds heard when blood hits obstruction. Usually indicate valve problems.

56

Radial Pulse

Pulse of the radial artery (felt in the wrist.)

57

Sphygomomanometer

Blood Pressure cuff.

58

Sounds of Korotkoff

Sounds when BP cuff is released, indicating resumption of blood flow into the forearm.

59

Veins

Carry O2 poor blood towards the heart.

60

Arteries

Carry O2 rich blood away from the heart.

61

What happens to your hematorcrit when you are dehydrated?

Hematocrit goes up.

62

What happens to your hematocrit when you donate blood?

Hematocrit stays the same.

63

Hematocrit

Whole blood

64

Hematocrit to hemoglobin...

3:1