Human Anatomy & Physiology + Modified MasteringA&P with Pearson EText + Get Ready for A&P + Brief Atlas of the Human Body: Anatomy and Physiology 2 Chapter 17 Flashcards


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1

If an individual is transfused with the wrong blood type, the recipient's antibodies react with the donor's antigens, eventually clumping and hemolyzing the donated RBCs.

  • True
  • False
  • True
2
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Which of these represents the majority of whole blood by volume?

  • erythrocytes
  • leukocytes
  • platelets
  • plasma
  • plasma
  • Plasma typically constitutes 55% of whole blood, although this value can vary somewhat.
3
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Which formed elements are highlighted?

  • neutrophils
  • basophils
  • platelets
  • eosinophils
  • platelets
4

Leukopenia ________.

  • may result from bone marrow cancer, or from living at high altitudes
  • may indicate a disease such as cirrhosis of the liver or tuberculosis
  • is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal WBCs
  • is characterized by an abnormally high WBC count
  • may indicate a disease such as cirrhosis of the liver or tuberculosis
5
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...

6

Which of the following blood types is considered the universal donor?

  • type O-
  • type AB-
  • type O+
  • type AB+
  • type O-
  • Erythrocytes in type O- blood lack antigens, so they do not induce an immune response in any recipient and can be safely donated to a recipient with any blood type.
7
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...

8
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Will this blood transfusion result in transfusion reaction?

  • yes
  • only if the patient has been previously sensitized
  • can't be determined
  • no
  • no
  • The recipient has no antibodies in his or her plasma and the donor has no antigens, so there can be no agglutination or transfusion reaction.
9

Which of the following donors will be suitable for a recipient with type A+ blood?

  • donor with B+ blood
  • donor with AB+ blood
  • donor with O- blood
  • donor with AB- blood
  • donor with O- blood
  • The donor blood has no antigens, so the recipient blood will not react to the donor's blood. Even though the donor blood has anti-A and anti-Rh antibodies, they will not be able to destroy enough of the recipient's cells, so this transfusion will work.
10

Blood typing is based on the presence of proteins known as __________ on the outer surface of the red blood cell plasma membrane.

  • antibodies
  • antigens
  • antigens
11
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Determine the blood group of a patient who has erythrocytes like the one shown in the figure.

  • O+
  • AB-
  • O-
  • AB+
  • AB+
  • A person with AB+ blood has A, B, and Rh antigens on the surface of their erythrocytes and no anti-A, anti-B, or anti-Rh antibodies.
12

How is the expression of surface antigens on red blood cells determined?

  • random selection
  • genetics
  • environment
  • previous exposure to an antigen
  • genetics
  • The genetic inheritance from each parent determines which antigens are expressed on the surface of an individual’s red blood cells.
  • Antigens are usually proteins that can stimulate the production of antibodies. DNA is the molecule of heredity that contains the instructions for making all proteins.
13
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  • The presence or absence of A and/or B surface antigens determines ABO blood type.
14
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  • For ABO blood, antibodies will be present in the plasma if the cell lacks the corresponding antigen. However, some antibodies, such as acquired antibodies, are only produced if there has been exposure to the corresponding antigen.
15

Like the ABO blood group, the Rh blood group is important in determining blood transfusion compatibility. Which of the following statements is true regarding the Rh blood group?

  • Individuals with Rh blood type have Rh (D) antigens on the surface of their red blood cells.
  • Anti-Rh (D) antibodies are only found in Rh individuals who have been exposed to Rh+ blood.
  • Individuals with Rh+ blood type have the corresponding anti-Rh (D) antibodies in their plasma.
  • Rh+ blood can be safely transfused into individuals with Rh blood with no adverse reactions.
  • Anti-Rh (D) antibodies are only found in Rh individuals who have been exposed to Rh+ blood.
  • The term Rh comes from its discovery using Rhesus monkeys. The + and – signs are added as a suffix to the ABO blood type.
16
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Predict what the following blood type test results will look like for a person who has Type B- blood. Drag the correct blood results onto the test card wells. Blood results may be used more than once.

  • Blood typing is vitally important before receiving a blood transfusion because of potentially fatal transfusion reactions and during pregnancy to prevent the possibility of hemolytic disease of the newborn.
17

When determining the __________, you will centrifuge whole blood in order to allow the formed elements to sink to the bottom of the sample.

  • hemoglobin
  • hematocrit
  • hematocrit
18
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Which of these is true of the materials making up the buffy coat in centrifuged blood?

  • They are denser than erythrocytes but less dense than plasma.
  • They are denser then plasma and erythrocytes.
  • They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.
  • They are less dense than both erythrocytes and plasma.
  • They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.
  • Centrifugation separates materials by density. Materials in the buffy coat are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.
19
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Determine the blood type of this patient based on the blood- typing test results in the figure.

  • O
  • B
  • A
  • AB
  • B
  • The blood of this patient agglutinates when tested with anti-B antibody, so the B antigen is present. There is no reaction with the anti-A antibody.
20
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Identify the leukocytes in the figure in order.

  • monocyte, eosinophil, lymphocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil
  • neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte
  • neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte, lymphocyte
  • eosinophil, neutrophil, monocyte, basophil, lymphocyte
  • neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, monocyte
  • This is the correct order. Notice that A-C are granular, while D and E are agranular. The groups can then be distinguished by looking at cell size, granule color, and nucleus shape.
21

Where are anti-Rh antibodies produced?

  • in an Rh- person who has been previously exposed to Rh antigen and sensitized
  • in an Rh+ person who has been previously exposed to Rh antigen and sensitized
  • in every Rh- person, even if they have not been previously exposed to Rh antigen
  • in every Rh+ person, even if they have not been previously exposed to Rh antigen
  • in an Rh- person who has been previously exposed to Rh antigen and sensitized
22
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When a person has an acute bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis or appendicitis, which type of leukocyte increases in number?

  • basophils
  • lymphocytes
  • neutrophils
  • eosinophils
  • neutrophils
  • Neutrophils tend to increase in number in bacterial infections.
23

A blood test reveals a large increase in the number of RBCs. One possible explanation for this may be ________.

  • leukemia
  • polycythemia
  • anemia
  • leukocytosis
  • polycythemia
24
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Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

  • monocytes
  • lymphocytes
  • eosinophils
  • basophils
  • lymphocytes
  • B lymphocytes, which mature in the bone marrow and do not require exposure to thymosin in the thymus as T lymphocytes do, produce antibodies.