PLT Praxis (Theorist)
- Social Development Theory
- Zone of Proximal Development: Student receives additional scaffolding to be successful in mastering a task and moving on
- Social Learning Theory
- People learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modeling.
- Construcvist Theory
- Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas based upon current/past knowledge
- Students learn through a "hands on" approach
8 Stages of Human Development:
- Infancy (0-1) Trust vs. Mistrust
- Toddler (1-2) Autonomy vs. Doubt
- Early Childhood (2-6) Initiative vs. Guilt
- Elementary and Middle School (6-12)
Competence vs Inferiority
- Adolescence (12-18) Identity vs. Role
-Ex. Students are given assignments based on ability levels and provided with frequent opportunities for success
Proposed stage theory of the moral development of women.
3 Levels of Moral Development:
Morality starts at an early age and can be affected by several factors
- Preconventional: Stage 1-Obedience and Punishment
- Stage 2- Individualism
- Conventional: Stage 3- Gain approval by other
- Stage 4- Law and order
- Post Conventional: Stage 5- Social Contract
- Stage 6- Principled Conscience
- Hierarchy of Needs
- Lower most basic needs must be met before the higher needs can be
Ex: Students are encouraged to eat when hungry, provided with a safe environment, and made to feel accepted.
4 Stages of Cognitive Development:
1. Sensorimotor (0-2)
Explore world through senses and motor skills.
2. Preoperational (2-7)
Others view the world as they do, can use symbols to represent objects.
3. Concrete Operational (7-11)
Reason logically, can conserve and reverse operations.
4. Formal Operational (11-up)
Can reason in hypothetical situations and use abstract thought.
- Behaviorist, developed the Operant Conditioning Theory
- The idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, which make it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again.
- The individual becomes conditioned to a response
- The Positive Discipline Model
- Incentive system, Teacher must model appropriate behavior and the students will do the same.
- Use body language to convey a behavioral message
- Educational Theorist
- 3 Levels of Culture that can be influential in the way students learn (Concrete, Behavioral, Symbolic)
- Classroom Management Discipline Theory
- Teachers must have "with-it-ness" good classroom management and well paced lessons