PLT Praxis (Theorist)

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Lev Vygotsky

  • Social Development Theory
  • Zone of Proximal Development: Student receives additional scaffolding to be successful in mastering a task and moving on

Albert Bandura

  • Social Learning Theory
  • People learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modeling.

Jerome Bruner

  • Construcvist Theory
  • Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas based upon current/past knowledge

John Dewey

  • Pragmatism
  • Students learn through a "hands on" approach

Erik Erikson

8 Stages of Human Development:

  • Infancy (0-1) Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Toddler (1-2) Autonomy vs. Doubt
  • Early Childhood (2-6) Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Elementary and Middle School (6-12)
    Competence vs Inferiority
  • Adolescence (12-18) Identity vs. Role Confusion

    -Ex. Students are given assignments based on ability levels and provided with frequent opportunities for success

Carol Gilligan

Proposed stage theory of the moral development of women.


Lawrence Kholberg

3 Levels of Moral Development:

Morality starts at an early age and can be affected by several factors

  • Preconventional: Stage 1-Obedience and Punishment
  • Stage 2- Individualism
  • Conventional: Stage 3- Gain approval by other
  • Stage 4- Law and order
  • Post Conventional: Stage 5- Social Contract
  • Stage 6- Principled Conscience

Abraham Maslow

  • Hierarchy of Needs
  • Lower most basic needs must be met before the higher needs can be

Ex: Students are encouraged to eat when hungry, provided with a safe environment, and made to feel accepted.


Jean Piaget

4 Stages of Cognitive Development:

1. Sensorimotor (0-2)

Explore world through senses and motor skills.

2. Preoperational (2-7)

Others view the world as they do, can use symbols to represent objects.

3. Concrete Operational (7-11)

Reason logically, can conserve and reverse operations.

4. Formal Operational (11-up)

Can reason in hypothetical situations and use abstract thought.


B.F. Skinner

  • Behaviorist, developed the Operant Conditioning Theory
  • The idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, which make it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again.
  • The individual becomes conditioned to a response

Fredric Jones

  • The Positive Discipline Model
  • Incentive system, Teacher must model appropriate behavior and the students will do the same.
  • Use body language to convey a behavioral message

Nitza Hidalgo

  • Educational Theorist
  • 3 Levels of Culture that can be influential in the way students learn (Concrete, Behavioral, Symbolic)

Jacob Kounin

  • Classroom Management Discipline Theory
  • Teachers must have "with-it-ness" good classroom management and well paced lessons