Human Anatomy & Physiology: PATHWAYS Flashcards


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1

Visual Pathway

Cornea  aqueous humor of anterior segment  lens  vitreous humor of posterior segment  retina (photoreceptors  bipolar cells  ganglion cells)  optic nerve  optic chiasm  optic tract  thalamus (sensory integration center)  primary visual cortex (occipital lobe)

2

Auditory Pathway

Auricle  external auditory meatus (canal)  tympanic membrane  malleus  incus  stapes  oval window  auditory hair cells (in spiral organ of Corti in cochlea) cochlear nerve  medulla  inferior colliculus (auditory reflex center in midbrain)  thalamus(sensory integration center)  primary auditory cortex (temporal lobe)

3

Olfactory Pathway

Olfactory receptor cells  olfactory nerve  olfactory bulb  olfactory tracts  (two pathways)
1. thalamus  olfactory cortex to interpret and identify smells
2. hypothalamus, amygdala, limbic system to elicit emotional responses to odors

4

Gustatory Pathway

Gustatory hair cells  cranial nerves (facial nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve)  medulla oblongata  thalamus  gustatory cortex (in insula cortex) and hypothalamus, amygdala, limbic system to elicit emotional responses to tastants

5

Pathway of blood through the heart

Superior & Inferior Vena Cavas and coronary sinus Right atrium  Tricuspid valve  Right ventricle  Pulmonary semilunar valve  Pulmonary trunk  Pulmonary arteries  Lung capillaries  Pulmonary veins  Left atrium  Bicuspid (mitral) valve  Left ventricle  Aortic semilunar valve  Aorta  to the systemic arteries  systemic capillaries  systemic veins  superior & inferior vena cavas and coronary sinus

6

Intrinsic conduction system of the heart

Sinoatrial node (intrinsic pacemaker cells)  Atrioventricular node  Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His)  Left and right Bundle branches  Purkinje fibers

7

Pathway of air

Nares  Nasal cavity  Nasopharynx  Oropharynx  Laryngopharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Primary Bronchus  Secondary Bronchus  Tertiary Bronchus  Bronchiole  Terminal bronchiole  Respiratory bronchiole Alveolar duct  Alveolus (alveoli)
Upper respiratory tract: Nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx
Lower respiratory tract: Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs

8

Pathway of food

Oral cavity  Oropharynx  Laryngopharynx  Upper esophageal sphincter  Esophagus  Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter  Stomach  Pyloric sphincter  Duodenum*  Jejunum  Ileum  Ileocecal valve  Cecum**  Ascending colon  Hepatic flexure  Transverse colon  Splenic flexure  Descending colon  Sigmoid colon  Rectum  Anal canal Anus
* The common bile duct and pancreatic duct enter the duodenum.
** The vermiform appendix is attached to the Cecum.
Small intestine: Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
Large intestine: Cecum, Ascending Colon, Transverse Colon, Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon, Rectum, Anal Canal

9

Pathway of urine formation

Renal artery  Afferent arteriole  Glomerulus  Bowman's capsule  Proximal convoluted tubule  Descending limb of Loop of Henle  Ascending limb of Loop of Henle  Distal convoluted tubule  Collecting duct  Minor calyx  Major calyx  Renal pelvis  Ureter  Bladder  Urethra

10

Pathway of Sperm

Seminiferous tubules  Rete testis Epididymis  Ductus (vas) deferens  Ejaculatory duct 
Urethra  Vagina  Cervix  Uterus Uterine (Fallopian) tube (oviduct)