campbell 11 56 Flashcards

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Philippe Bouchet and colleagues conducted a massive survey of marine molluscs on the west coast of New Caledonia. For 20% of the total species that were located and identified, only a single specimen was found. What does that suggest about the diversity of molluscs in this area?

A) The west coast of New Caledonia is not an appropriate habitat for molluscs.

B) Many of the species from this 20% are probably rare.

C) They were not sampling uniformly throughout the area.

D) Many of the species from this 20% are most likely just dispersing through the area.

Answer: B


If all individuals in the last remaining population of a particular frog species were all highly related, which type of diversity would be of greatest concern when planning to prevent the species from going extinct?

A) global diversity

B) local diversity

C) ecosystem diversity

D) genetic diversity

Answer: D


What is the biological significance of genetic diversity between populations?

A) Genes for traits conferring an advantage to local conditions are unlikely.

B) The population that is most fit would survive by competitive exclusion.

C) Genetic diversity reduces the probability of extinction.

D) Diseases and parasites are not spread between separated populations.

Answer: C


Tropical forests are being converted to farm or pasture land at an alarming rate, and one major focus is on the biodiversity and the impact to these ecosystems. What is a direct benefit to humans that helps explain why these forests need to be preserved?

A) This diversity provides areas for coffee growing.

B) Natural and undisturbed areas are important wildlife habitats.

C) The diversity could contain novel drugs for consumers.

D) The plant diversity provides shade, which lowers global warming.

Answer: C


Ecosystem services include processes that increase the quality of the abiotic environment. Which of the following processes would fall under this category?

A) Keystone predators have a marked effect on species diversity.

B) Green plants and phytoplankton produce the oxygen we breathe.

C) Bees, flies, and wasps pollinate many plants.

D) The presence of dams improves flood control.

Answer: B


During the inventory of bacterial genes present in the Sargasso Sea, a deep isolated area in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, a research team concluded that at least 1,800 bacterial species were present. Based on what you might predict about the habitat structure of such an area, what kind of bacterial diversity would you expect to see in tropical coral reef waters?

A) slightly greater genetic diversity

B) slightly smaller genetic diversity

C) markedly smaller genetic diversity

D) markedly greater genetic diversity

Answer: D


Erwin and Scott used an insecticidal fog to knock down insects from the top section of a L. seemannii tree. The researchers identified over 900 species of beetles among the individuals that fell. Erwin also projected that this entire tree from top to bottom is host to about 600 arthropod species that are unique to this tree species and not found on any other tree species. There are approximately 50,000 species of tropical trees. Although it could not be entirely accurate, what would be the best way to estimate the total number of arthropod species?

A) Estimate the species density and then multiply by 50,000.

B) Multiply 600 by 50,000.

C) Multiply 50,000 by 900.

D) Add 900 to 600, and then multiply by 50,000.

Answer: B


Which of the following statements regarding extinction is accurate?

A) A large percentage of species are immune from extinction; however, rates of extinction may increase with continued human impacts.

B) Extinctions occur only periodically, separated by long time spans with no extinctions.

C) Extinction is occurring at a similar rate now as compared to historical fossil evidence.

D) The small-population approach is inferior to the declining-population approach if the goal is to conserve the maximum number of species in a given region.

Answer: D


The human impact that scientists determined has caused the most extinctions on record is ________, and beyond further losses from this impact, the other impact with the largest potential to cause future extinctions is ________.

A) introduced species; habitat loss

B) habitat loss; overharvesting

C) climate change; habitat loss

D) habitat loss; climate change

Answer: D


Which of the following observations provides the best evidence of a biodiversity crisis?

A) the incursion of a non-native species

B) increasing pollution levels

C) high rate of extinction

D) climate change

Answer: C


Which of the following terms includes all of the others?

A) species diversity

B) biodiversity

C) genetic diversity

D) ecosystem diversity

Answer: B


To better comprehend the magnitude of current extinctions, it will be necessary to ________.

A) differentiate between plant extinction and animal extinction numbers

B) focus on identifying more species of mammals and birds

C) identify more of the yet unknown species of organisms on Earth

D) use the average extinction rates of vertebrates as a baseline

Answer: C


Loss of biodiversity matters not only with regard to mammals or other vertebrates, but also microbes. Why are microbes worthy of discovery and protection from extinction?

A) Microbes play a role in digestion.

B) Microbes may produce unique proteins useful in genetic research.

C) Microbes are much greater in species number than any other taxa on Earth.

D) Microbes may be the most sensitive to the next large extinction event. Answer: B

Answer: B


Which of the following threats to biodiversity is targeted at specific species rather than groups of species?

A) introduced species

B) habitat destruction

C) increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, a cause of global warming

D) overharvesting

Answer: D


Introduced species can have deleterious effects on biological communities by ________.

A) competing with native species for resources and displacing them

B) spreading rapidly in their new region

C) reducing erosion

D) increasing the biodiversity in their new region

Answer: A


Overharvesting encourages extinction and is most likely to affect ________.

A) animals that occupy a broad ecological niche

B) large animals with low intrinsic reproductive rates

C) most organisms that live in the oceans' coral reefs

D) edge-adapted species

Answer: B


Of the following ecosystem types, which have been impacted the most by humans?

A) wetland and riparian

B) desert and high alpine

C) taiga and second-growth forests

D) tundra and arctic

Answer: A


Burning fossil fuels releases oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. These air pollutants can be responsible for ________.

A) the death of fish in lakes

B) precipitation with a pH as high as 8.0

C) eutrophication of lakes

D) global temperature decrease

Answer: A


Suppose you attend a town meeting at which some experts tell the audience that they have performed a cost-benefit analysis of a proposed transit system that would probably reduce overall air pollution and fossil fuel consumption. The analysis, however, reveals that ticket prices will not cover the cost of operating the system when fuel, wages, and equipment are taken into account. As a biologist, you know that if ecosystem services had been included in the analysis, the experts might have arrived at a different answer. Why are ecosystem services rarely included in economic analyses?

A) Federal laws of the United States exclude their inclusion in any cost benefit analysis.

B) They have a low value and are usually not cost effective.

C) Ecosystem services only take into account abiotic factors that affect local environments.

D) Their cost is difficult to estimate, and people take them for granted.

Answer: D


Researchers have been studying a rare population of 87 voles in an isolated area. Ten voles from a larger population were added to this isolated population. Besides having ten additional animals, what benefits are there to importing individuals?

A) There is no benefit other than increasing the overall population size.

B) Additional voles will strengthen competition and increase the survival of the fittest.

C) Additional animals would increase beneficial genetic drift.

D) Additional voles from a distant population will likely increase genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding.

Answer: D

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

Five new individuals were added to a small population of bighorn sheep in 1986, and ten more were added between 1990 and 1994. According to the figure, what occurred in this population after these additions?

A) The population increased exponentially.

B) The population increased in overall numbers.

C) The population growth rate increased.

D) The population continued to decline.

Answer: C

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

According to the figure, what is the most accurate explanation for the data after 1985?

A) emigration

B) immigration

C) introduction of new alleles into the population

D) increased resources in the area

Answer: B


Use the following figure to answer the question.

According to the figure, which two consecutive years had the largest change in the population growth rate?

A) 1967-1968

B) 1922-1923

C) 1938-1939

D) 1985-1986

Answer: C


Easter Island is an extremely isolated island in the Pacific, about 3,500 km from South America. Although there are no forests on the island now, archeological studies, fossil pollen, and other data show that Easter Island was once home to forests containing giant palms and other trees. Some scientists think that the removal of the giant palms caused the forest ecosystem to collapse. Which of the following factors might have caused this collapse?

A) Shade-tolerant species increased in diversity in the absence of the palm.

B) Soil erosion decreased in the absence of the palm.

C) The absence of the palm trees may have reduced habitat quality for many other species.

D) Productivity increased, thereby increasing competition, in the palms' absence.

Answer: C


Which of the following criteria have to be met for a species to qualify as invasive?

A) endemic to the area, spreads rapidly, and displaces foreign species

B) introduced to a new area, spreads rapidly, and displaces native species

C) introduced to a new area, spreads rapidly, and displaces other invasive species

D) endemic to the area, spreads slowly, and displaces native species

Answer: B


Which of the following conditions is the most likely indicator of a population in an extinction vortex?

A) The species in question is found only in small, stable pockets of its former range.

B) The effective population size of the species falls below 1,000.

C) Genetic measurements indicate a loss of genetic variation over time.

D) The population is permanently small.

Answer: C


What strategy was used to rescue Illinois prairie chickens from a recent extinction vortex?

A) determining the minimum viable population size by taking into account the effective population size

B) establishing a nature reserve to protect its habitat nesting grounds

C) introducing individuals from other populations to increase genetic variation

D) reducing the population size of its predators and competitors

Answer: C


If the sex ratio in a population is significantly different from 50:50, then which of the following statements will always be accurate?

A) The population will enter the extinction vortex.

B) The genetic variation in the population will increase over time.

C) Modeling of the minimum viable population size will underestimate the actual population size.

D) The effective population size will be less than the actual population size.

Answer: D


Which of the following factors could cause the largest increase in the effective population size of a species?

A) an increased number of males

B) an increase in the total population size

C) an increase in the number of breeding males and females

D) an increased number of females

Answer: C


The primary difference between the small-population approach and the declining-population approach to biodiversity recovery is that ________.

A) small-population approach is interested in bolstering the genetic diversity of a threatened population rather than the environmental factors that caused the population's decline

B) small-population approach applies for conservation biologists when population numbers fall below 500

C) declining-population approach would likely involve bringing together individuals from scattered small populations to interbreed in order to promote genetic diversity

D) small-population approach would investigate and eliminate all of the human impacts on the habitat of the species being studied for recovery

Answer: A


Which of the following statements is accurate with respect to the red-cockaded woodpecker populations in the southeastern United States?

A) The bird requires feeding grounds in and around mature pine forest that are uninterrupted by the structure of other vegetation.

B) The mature pine forests in which they live should continue to be protected from forest fire.

C) All of the appropriate red-cockaded woodpecker habitats have already been logged or converted to agricultural land.

D) The red-cockaded woodpecker relies on dense forest to hide their nests from ground-dwelling predators.

Answer: A


Managing southeastern forests specifically for the red-cockaded woodpecker ________.

A) required periodic forest burning to reduce the growth of a dense understory of trees and shrubs

B) contributed to greater abundance and diversity of other forest plant species

C) required the construction of nest boxes in the forest to promote successful nesting

D) focused on the removal of standing dead longleaf pine to promote growth of young longleaf pine

Answer: A


Which of the following strategies would most rapidly increase the genetic diversity of a population in an extinction vortex?

A) Capture all remaining individuals in the population for captive breeding followed by reintroduction to the wild.

B) Establish a reserve that protects the population's habitat.

C) Introduce new individuals transported from other populations of the same species.

D) Sterilize the least fit individuals in the population.

Answer: C


Which one of the following is most likely to be a hot spot of biodiversity for birds?

A) Central America

B) Northern Europe

C) Central Australia

D) Eastern North America

Answer: A

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

In looking at the species-area plot in the figure, what can be concluded?

A) The number of bird species increases linearly with island area.

B) Two island land areas do not correlate to the number of bird species

C) Diversity is independent from island area.

D) The number of bird species increases exponentially with island area.

Answer: A

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

Based on the species-area plot in the figure, if habitable area on an island were reduced from

10,000 square kilometers (km2) to 1,000 km2, roughly what percentage of the species would disappear?

A) 0.3 percent

B) 3 percent

C) 30 percent

D) 60 percent

Answer: C


The main purpose of movement corridors is to ________.

A) slow down the introduction of new individuals of a species

B) slowly introduce a species to a new reserve

C) create more edge habitat

D) connect two otherwise isolated populations

Answer: D


A land developer and several ecologists are discussing how a parcel of private land should be developed with housing while saving 20 hectares as natural habitat. The land developer suggests that the 20 hectares be divided into 20 separate 1-hectare areas, spread out across the area. The ecologists suggest that it would be better to have one intact parcel of 20 hectares on one side of the larger area. What is the significance of these different arrangements of the 20 hectares?

A) The single intact parcel would have a smaller amount of edge than the 20 separate parcels.

B) The isolated hectare plots increase the ability of individuals to disperse from one habitat to another.

C) The separate 1-hectare plots are less vulnerable to edge effects.

D) The large plot will create more inbreeding in many species.

Answer: A

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

Looking at the figure showing the results of forest fragmentation, what can be said about edge effects?

A) Biomass declines along edges of forest fragments.

B) Biomass increases along the edges of forest fragments.

C) Species diversity decreases along the edges of forest fragments.

D) Fragmentation does not affect biomass.

Answer: A

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Which of the following is a generally accurate statement about the current research regarding forest fragmentation?

A) Fragmented forests promote biodiversity because they result in the combination of forest- edge species and forest-interior species.

B) In fragmented forests, the number of forested-adapted species tend to decline and the number of edge species tend to increase.

C) Fragmented forests are the goal of conservation biologists who design wildlife reserves.

D) The disturbance of timber extraction causes the species diversity to increase because of the new habitats created.

Answer: B


Brown-headed cowbirds utilize fragmented forests effectively by ________.

A) feeding on the fruits of shrubs that tend to grow at the forest/open-field interface

B) parasitizing the nests of forest birds and feeding on open-field insects

C) consuming the eggs of other species as well as insects and seeds in open fields

D) outcompeting other songbird species for access to nesting holes in old-growth trees

Answer: B


Movement corridors can be harmful to certain species because they ________.

A) increase inbreeding

B) spread disease and parasites

C) increase genetic diversity

D) allow seasonal migration

Answer: B


Establishing new nature reserves in biodiversity hot spots may not necessarily the best choice because ________.

A) hot spots are situated in remote areas not accessible to the public

B) their ecological importance makes land purchase very expensive

C) a hot spot helps conserve only a few species

D) changing environmental conditions may shift the location of the hot spot

Answer: D


What is the biggest problem with selecting a site for a reserve?

A) Making a proper selection is difficult because currently the environmental conditions of almost any site can change quickly.

B) Keystone species are difficult to identify in potential reserve sites.

C) Only lands that are not useful to human activities are available for reserves.

D) Most of the best sites are inaccessible by land transportation, so making roads to them is often prohibitively expensive.

Answer: A


What is a critical load?

A) the amount of nutrient augmentation necessary to bring a depleted habitat back to its former level

B) the level of a given toxin in an ecosystem that is lethal to 50 percent of the species present

C) the amount of added nutrient that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem integrity

D) the number of predators an ecosystem can support that effectively culls prey populations to healthy levels

Answer: C


Agricultural lands frequently require nutrient augmentation because ________.

A) nitrogen-fixing bacteria are not as plentiful in agricultural soils because of the use of pesticides

B) the nutrients that become the biomass of plants are not cycled back to the soil on lands where they are harvested

C) land that is available for agriculture tends to be nutrient-poor

D) cultivation of agricultural land inhibits the decomposition of organic matter

Answer: B


Which of the following outcomes is caused by excessive nutrient runoff into aquatic ecosystems?

A) depletion of ozone layer

B) acid precipitation

C) biological magnification

D) eutrophication

Answer: D


Which of the following factors causes extremely high levels of toxic chemicals in fish-eating birds?
A) acid precipitation

B) biological magnification

C) greenhouse effect

D) eutrophication

Answer: B


Use the following graph and information to answer the question.

Flycatcher birds that migrate from Africa to Europe feed their chicks a diet that is almost exclusively moth caterpillars. The graph shows the peak dates of flycatcher arrival in Europe, bird hatching, and peak caterpillar season for the years 1980 and 2000. The y-axis is a measure of the abundance of birds, hatching chicks, and caterpillars.

The shift in the peak of caterpillar season is most likely due to ________.

A) earlier migration returns of flycatchers

B) an innate change in the biological clock of the caterpillars

C) global warming

D) acid precipitation in Europe

Answer: C

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Your friend is wary of environmentalists' claims that global warming could lead to major biological change on Earth. Which of the following statements can you use in response to your friend's suspicions?

A) We know that atmospheric carbon dioxide has decreased over the past 150 years.

B) Through measurements and observations, we know that carbon dioxide levels and temperature fluctuations are indirectly correlated.

C) Global warming could have minor effects on agriculture in the United States.

D) Scientist have evidence that climate change has already altered primary production, as well as ecosystem services.

Answer: D


The main cause of the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere over the past 150 years is ________.

A) increased worldwide primary production

B) an increase in the amount of infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere

C) the burning of larger amounts of wood and fossil fuels

D) additional respiration by the rapidly growing human population

Answer: C


Which of the following is a consequence of biological magnification?

A) Toxic chemicals in the environment pose greater risk to top-level predators than to primary consumers.

B) Populations of top-level predators are generally smaller than populations of primary consumers.

C) Only a small portion of the energy captured by producers is transferred to consumers.

D) The amount of biomass in the producer level of an ecosystem decreases if the producer turnover time increases.

Answer: A


Why are changes in the global carbon cycle important?

A) Burning increases available carbon for primary producers and, therefore, primary consumers.

B) Deforestation and suburbanization increase an area's net primary productivity.

C) Increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide are altering Earth's climate.

D) By using fossil fuels, we are replenishing a nonrenewable resource.

Answer: C

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

Looking at the figure, what can you conclude about the data?

A) As species richness changes, plant biomass remains consistent.

B) As species richness increases, plant biomass increases.

C) As species richness increases, plant biomass increases and then levels off.

D) As species richness decreases, plant biomass increases.

Answer: C

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

Examine the figure and consider this hypothesis: Plant biomass increases with species richness. Functional groups are categories of plants each containing numerous species, such as grasses and wildflowers, or trees and shrubs. In looking at the data in the figure, how would you relate it to this hypothesis? The hypothesis is ________.

A) partially supported

B) supported

C) rejected

D) neither rejected nor supported

Answer: A

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Use the following figure to answer the question.

Examine the figure, which notes the average barrels of oil used per person per year in different countries. What can be concluded?

A) Residents in warmer climates use more energy per person.

B) Residents of more affluent, industrialized countries use more energy per person.

C) Residents of more populated countries use more energy per person.

D) English-speaking countries tend to use more energy per person.

Answer: B


The main goal of sustainable development is to ________.

A) involve more countries in conservation efforts

B) use only natural resources in the construction of new buildings

C) use natural resources such that they do not decline over time

D) reevaluate and re-implement management plans over time

Answer: C

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Use the graphs to answer the question.

Archeological, fossil, and geological data provide information on the Mayan populations and their environment in Mexico, in the Caribbean state of Yucatán. The graphs depict population size, percentage of the land that was forested, and the amount of soil erosion. Based on the figure, what can you conclude about the history of land use in the southern Yucatán?

A) Massive soil erosion caused the Mayan population to crash.

B) Reduction in forest cover caused the Mayan population to crash.

C) As Mayan population increased, deforestation increased, probably leading to increased soil erosion.

D) This Mayan population practiced sustainable development.

Answer: C


Which of the following nations has become a world leader in the establishment of zoned reserves?

A) Costa Rica

B) China

C) United States

D) Mexico

Answer: A


Which of the following statements about protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity is correct?

A) About 25 percent of Earth's land area is now protected.

B) Developing nations have a larger ecological footprint than developed nations, thus protected areas should be primarily established in developing nations.

C) Management of a protected area should be coordinated with management of the land surrounding the area.

D) It is only important to protect land within biodiversity hot spots.

Answer: C


Eutrophication is often caused by excess limiting-nutrient runoff from agricultural fields into aquatic ecosystems. This process results in massive algal blooms that eventually die and decompose, ultimately depleting the dissolved oxygen, killing large numbers of fish and other aquatic organisms. Predict which of the following human actions would best address the problem of eutrophication near agricultural areas?

A) After each eutrophication event, remove the dead fish and invertebrates to place on agricultural fields instead of fertilizer.

B) Determine which limiting nutrient is responsible for the algal bloom, and use other fertilizers to apply to crops.

C) Remove the algae before it dies and decomposes to prevent eutrophication from occurring.

D) Determine critical nutrient loads required for certain crops, and do not exceed this amount during fertilizer application.

Answer: D


Elevated carbon dioxide levels have been shown to contribute to the greenhouse effect, resulting in an increase in mean global temperature. Ecosystems where the largest warming has already occurred include snow-covered northern coniferous forests, tundra, and arctic sea ice habitats. Which statement best explains how the elimination of ice-covered ecosystems affects the rise or fall in global temperature?

A) Melting ice releases dissolved ozone gas, which adds to the greenhouse effect.

B) More reflective surfaces of ice are replaced with darker, more absorptive surfaces, thereby contributing to the warming trend.

C) Large-scale ice melts actually contribute toward lowering global temperatures by decreasing salinity of the oceans.

D) Carbon dioxide levels are lowered as a result of the greater volume of water to accommodate greater levels of dissolved gas.

Answer: B


A parasitic fungus, Geomyces destructans, has decimated millions of bats in the United States since it was first observed in upstate New York in 2006. The disease has been named white-nose syndrome because of the white fungal hyphae that cover the bat upon infection. It is believed that this fungus was introduced from Europe by tourists entering into caves with hibernating bat populations. Which prediction most likely reflects changes that will occur in natural communities as a result of massive bat mortality?

A) increased animal populations as a result of niche availability

B) increased rodent populations as a result of an increase in flying insect populations

C) increased flying insect populations

D) decreased bird populations as the spread of the fungus infects other closely related species

Answer: C


One characteristic that distinguishes a population in an extinction vortex from most other populations is that

A) it is a rare, top-level predator.

B) its effective population size is lower than its total population size.

C) its genetic diversity is very low.

D) it is not well adapted to edge conditions.

Answer: C


The main cause of the increase in the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere over the past 150

years is

A) increased worldwide primary production.

B) increased worldwide standing crop.

C) an increase in the amount of infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere.

D) the burning of larger amounts of wood and fossil fuels.

Answer: D


What is the single greatest threat to biodiversity?

A) overharvesting of commercially important species

B) habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction

C) introduced species that compete with native species

D) novel pathogens

Answer: B


Which of the following is a consequence of biological magnification?

A) Toxic chemicals in the environment pose greater risk to top-level predators than to primary consumers.

B) Populations of top-level predators are generally smaller than populations of primary consumers.

C) The biomass of producers in an ecosystem is generally higher than the biomass of primary consumers.

D) Only a small portion of the energy captured by producers is transferred to consumers.

Answer: A


Which of the following strategies would most rapidly increase the genetic diversity of a population in an extinction vortex?

A) Establish a reserve that protects the population's habitat.

B) Introduce new individuals transported from other populations of the same species.

C) Sterilize the least fit individuals in the population.

D) Control populations of the endangered population's predators and competitors.

Answer: B


Of the following statements about protected areas that have been established to preserve biodiversity, which one is not correct?

A) About 25% of Earth's land area is now protected.

B) National parks are one of many types of protected areas.

C) Management of a protected area should be coordinated with management of the land surrounding the area.

D) It is especially important to protect biodiversity hot spots.

Answer: A