Final exam

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created 4 years ago by g_coffey119
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biol 2402
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1

What brain region is responsible for learning, memory, and personality?

Cerebrum

2

The brainstem connects the brain with what central nervous system structure?

spinal cord.

3

What is the function of the cerebellum?

the planning and coordination of movement.

4

What are the three primary brain vesicles that form from the neural tube?

forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.

5

What information is received by the primary vestibular cortex?

equilibrium.

6

Where are color, object movement, and depth processed in the brain?

visual association areas.

7

Bundles of white matter in the cerebrum are known as:

tracts.

8

Where is white matter located?

in the spinal cord, white matter is superficial while cerebral white matter is deep.

9

What is located in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe?

primary somatosensory cortex.

10

In 1848, Phineas Gage sustained a brain injury when an iron rod pierced through his left prefrontal cerebral cortex. What resulted from this injury?

Gage’s personality, behavior, and psychological state changed.

11

What best describes the Broca’s area?

Broca’s area is a premotor area for speech sounds and articulation of words.

12

Damage to the substantia niagra of the midbrain (basal nuclei) would be indicated by difficulties with what action?

movement.

13

In what dural fold is the superior sagittal sinus located?

falx cerebri.

14

What are some of the functions associated with the reticular formation?

pain transmission, sleep, and breathing.

15

What portion of the brainstem blends with the spinal cord after passing through the foramen magnum?

medulla oblongata.

16

What is housed in the pyramidal tracts of the medulla oblongata?

upper motor neurons of the corticospinal tract.

17

What results when the corpus callosum is severed?

communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres would be impaired.

18

The hippocampus and amygdala are parts of which central nervous system division?

limbic system.

19

Which division detects stimuli of the general senses and special senses?

somatic sensory division.

20

If a mosquito lands on your limb, the stimulus is carried to the CNS by which division of the nervous system?

somatic sensory division.

21

Which portion of the peripheral nervous system houses motor neurons?

anterior (ventral) root of spinal nerves.

22

Mixed nerves carry:

both sensory and motor neurons.

23

Which connective tissue wraps around the axon of a neuron?

endoneurium

24

Loss of balance and equilibrium may indicate damage to the:

vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

25

Which cranial nerve detects smell and overlies the cribiform plate in the anterior cranial fossa?

olfactory nerve (I).

26

If a patient sustains damage to the sensory root of the facial nerve (VII), what would the symptoms suggest given this information?

inability to taste since the facial nerve innervates taste to the anterior portion of the tongue.

27

If a person has an inability to swallow, which cranial nerve would most likely be affected

trigeminal nerve or (V) (because of innervation to mastication muscles -masseter & temporalis and glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) which innervates pharyngeal muscles for swallowing.

28

A reflex with a single synapse between the sensory and motor neurons within the spinal cord is known as a

monosynaptic reflex.

29

Visceral reflex arcs involve which functions?

heart rate, digestion, blood pressure, & thermoregulation.

30

Autonomic motor neurons innervate which structures:

glands, cardiac muscle cells, and smooth muscle cells.

31

What muscle reflex causes muscle relaxation?

Golgi tendon reflex.

32

The inability to produce a gag reflex could indicate a problem with the :

glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) or vagus nerve (X).

33

Muscle spindles have which characteristics:

muscle spindles are receptors for the stretch reflex; and muscle spindles are embedded within extrafusal muscle fibers.

34

If a patient sustained damage to some of the autonomic ganglia, what part of the visceral reflex arc is interrupted?

motor response in a target cell.

35

If a patient touches a warm cup of hot coffee, what receptor in the skin detects this stimulus?

thermoreceptors.

36

If a drug is administered to block the heart’s adrenergic receptors, how is heart rate affected during exercise?

The heart rate will be unable to increase in response to exercise.

37

What neurotransmitter is released by both preganglionic and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons at their synapses?

acetylcholine.

38

What type of receptor is located in the membranes of all parasympathetic target cells?

muscarinic receptors.

39

What effect does a ẞ2 agonist have on the diameter of respiratory passages?

the diameter of the respiratory passageways will increase.

40

Receptors that bind acetylcholine are known as:

cholinergic.

41

What do the white rami communicantes contain?

preganglionic sympathetic neurons

42

If a patient injured his back in the thoracic and lumbar regions, damaging the autonomic ganglia found close to his spinal cord, what neurons did he likely damage?

sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

43

The ability of the lens to change its shape from flattened to round (more conves) is known as

accommodation.

44

What unit of light stimulates photoreceptor cells (rods & cones) in the retina?

photon

45

What gelatinous mass helps maintain the shape of the eyeball?

vitreous humor.

46

now the correct order for transduction of a chemical odorant into a nerve signal action potential.

  1. Odorants reach receptors in the olfactory neurons’ cilia; 2. The binding of an odorant activates a G-protein which then detaches from the receptor; 3. The G-protein activates an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, to convert ATP into cyclic AMP; 4. cAMP opens ions channels that allow sodium and calcium ions to enter the cell; and 5. The membrane is depolarized. Depolarization that reaches threshold at the axon hillock triggers an action potential and transduction has been achieved.
47

How is the sensation of taste affected by dry mouth?

foods have a less intense taste when the mouth is dry.

48

Identify the cranial nerves involved in carrying taste information from the tongue into the CNS.

vagus nerve (CN X), facial nerve (CN VII), and glossopharyngeal nerves (CN IX).

49

Damage to the facial nerve would result in a loss of taste sensation to which part of the tongue?

anterior two-thirds of the tongue. (Posterior one-third of the tongue is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve which carries taste sensation in addition to innervating the pharyngeal (swallowing) muscles.

50

Where in the brain are sensations integrated with memories of past experiences?

limbic system.

51

Neural sensory signals are all relayed to the thalamus, EXCEPT for the sensation of:

olfaction (smell).

52

What are the three layers of the eyeball from outer to inner?

fibrous, vascular, and neural layers.

53

Which cranial nerve conveys information about sounds and head position and movement in the brain?

vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).

54

The optic disc in known as the blind spot because:

photoreceptors are absent from the optic disc.

55

What structure supports the spiral organ (organ of Corti)?

basilar membrane.

56

If you are standing motionless in an elevator and it suddenly descends to a lower floor level, stimulates receptors in what structure of the inner ear?

utricle and saccule (within the vestibule).

57

What region of the retina is responsible for acute (highly detailed) vision with a high concentration of photoreceptor cells –mainly cones?

fovea centralis

58

What gland secretes oil to prevent the eyelids from adhering to each other?

tarsal gland.

59

The loudness of sound is determined by the vibrations of which structures in the inner ear?

basilar membrane

60

Where are sound vibrations amplified?

auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, & stapes).

61

In the spinal, nerve tracts or funiculi make up the ___________.

white colummns.

62

What part of the motor pathway inhibits inappropriate movements?

basal nuclei.

63

What role does dopamine play in motor control?

dopamine binds receptors on the caudate nucleus and putamen, inhibiting the globus pallidus. The upper motor neurons are eventually activated.

64

Which division detects stimuli of the general senses and special senses?

somatic sensory division.

65

Control of skeletal muscle is the responsibility of which neurons?

somatic motor neurons.

66

Which part of the eye refracts light to focus on the retina?

cornea refracts the light first as it enters, then the lens refracts later.

67

What pigment is derived from vitamin A?

retinal is derived from vitamin A

68

Twenty year old Leslie learned she is hyperopic after having her eyes examined. What best describes her eye condition?

Eyeball is too Short.

69

What are the three types of cones?

red, green, and blue.

70

What gland secretes tears that lubricate the eyes?

lacrimal gland

71

What do most of the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves serve?

intercostal nerves.

72

Striking the “funny” bone is referring to injury to which nerve of the brachial plexus?

Ulnar nerve.

73

What is responsible for keeping blood vessels partially constricted at all times?

sympathetic tone.

74

What are the nervous structures associated with myasthenia gravis?

Eye,face, throat, neck and limb muscles