Exam #3 Microbiology (Professor Good)

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Which one of the following microorganisms has its own kingdom in the five-kingdom of classification?

a) Viruses
b) Algae
c) Bacteria
d) Fungi



All of the following are considered eukaryotes except:

a) Archea
b) Fungi
c) Protozoa
d) Humans



Classification is necessary to ______.

a) establish criteria for identifying organisms
b) arrange related organisms into groups
c) provide information on how organisms evolved
d) All of the above

All of the above


Binomial nomenclature was originated by ______.

a) Louis Pasteur
b) Robert Koch
c) Hans Delbruck
d) Carolus Linnaeus

Carolus Linnaeus


In the name Escherichia coli, Escherichia refers to the ________ of the bacteria.

a) class
b) phylum
c) species
d) genus



Which of the following organisms shows the proper use of binomial nomenclature?

a) escherichia coli
b) Escherichia Coli
c) Escherichia coli
d) escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli


The correct order of taxonomic hierarchies (from most broad to most specific) is _____.

a) class, order, family, phylum
b) order, family, class, phylum
c) phylum, class, order, family
d) phylum, class, family, order

phylum, class, order, family


A strain is a subgroup of a _____.

a) phylum
b) class
c) family
d) species



A tool used by biologist that involves asking a series of "either-or" questions which eventually leads to the identification of an organism is a/an _____.

a) species key
b) evolutionary tree
c) dichotomous key
d) binary chart

dichotomous key


Organisms are generally classified according to _____.

a) cell size
b) evolutionary relationships
c) colony color
d) None of these choices

evolutionary relationships


Which of the following is a reason that bacteria cannot be classified in the same way as animals?

a) Some bacteria are not motile.
b) Bacteria do not reproduce sexually.
c) Bacteria are single celled organisms.
d) Bacteria are eukaryotic organisms.

Bacteria do not reproduce sexually.


Which of the following characteristics is not found in all cellular life forms?

a) Cells that are bounded by a membrane
b) Genetic information carried in the form of DNA
c) Ability to convert light energy to chemical energy
d) Ribosomes that produce proteins

Ability to convert light energy to chemical energy


The Kingdom Monera was also known as the Kingdom _____.

a) Bacteria
b) Eubacteria
c) Prokaryotae
d) Archaeobacteria



Bacteria found in extreme environments (e.g., high heat, very high salt concentration) would best be described as a member of the _____.

a) eubacteria
b) prokaryotae
c) cyanobacteria
d) archaeobacteria



The three-domain system of classification does not include the _____.

a) archaea
b) eukarya
c) monera
d) bacteria



According to the three-domain classification system an organism with a cell wall made of peptidoglycan would belong to the _____.

a) Bacteria
b) Archaea
c) Eukarya
d) none of the above



Viruses are not assigned to any Kingdom because _____.

a) there are too few viruses to bother
b) viruses are not cellular life forms
c) virology is not a recognized branch of microbiology
d) none of the above, viruses are grouped with the bacteria

viruses are not cellular life forms


If an organism contains 13% adenine in its DNA, its GC content is _____.

a) 13%
b) 26%
c) 74%
d) 37%



Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate _____.

a) DNA by GC content
b) proteins by size
c) DNA by nucleotide sequence
d) proteins by amino acid sequence

proteins by size


Viruses have some of the properties of cellular life forms. Which of the following is a characteristic of all organisms except viruses?
a) presence of a plasma membrane
b) capable of mutation
c) ability to reproduce inside a living host
d) grow in response to their environmental conditions

presence of a plasma membrane


Viruses are referred to as obligate intracellular parasites because:
a) viral DNA inserts itself into host DNA.
b) they reproduce and then exit the cell.
c) they use the host's energy to live.
d) they must use the host's machinery to synthesize components required for assembly into new virus particles

they must use the host's machinery to synthesize components required for assembly into new virus particles


Which of the following structures do viruses use to attach themselves and enter the host cells?
a) viral spikes
b) viral tails
c) viral particles
d) viral nucleic acid

viral spikes


Some viruses have a lipid bilayer, also known as the viral envelope. The viral envelope is most likely to come from the following source:
a) host cell plasma membrane
b) host membrane-bound organelles
c) host nucleus
d) another virus

host cell plasma membrane


A naked virus:
a) has no protein coat around its nucleic acid.
b) is unable to attach itself to a host cell.
c) has no envelope
d) has no infectious piece of DNA

has no envelope


A minus (antisense) strand virus might synthesize proteins within a host cell through the following synthesis pathway:
a) minus strand RNA protein
b) minus strand RNA plus strand RNA protein
c) RNA DNA protein
d) RNA RNA DNA protein

minus strand RNA plus strand RNA protein


DNA viruses are grouped into families based on the following characteristics except:
a) presence of an envelope
b) presence of a capsid
c) whether DNA is single stranded or double stranded
d) whether DNA is linear or circular

presence of a capsid


You have isolated an unknown virus. It is a double-stranded DNA virus and does not have an envelope. To which virus family does it mostly likely belong?
a) Paramyxoviridae
b) Retroviridae
c) Adenoviridae
d) Parvoviridae



All of the following viruses may stay inside of a cell for many years and remain inactive except:
a) herpes simplex
b) chickenpox
c) HIV
d) enterovirus



A latent viral infection is an infection in which:
a) viral replication is slow
b) viruses remain within host cells without ever causing a disease
c) a viral infection causes a disease progression gradually over a long period
d) viral replication has stopped but may resume years or decades later upon reactivation

viral replication has stopped but may resume years or decades later upon reactivation


Reactivation of chickenpox long after the initial infection leads to:
a) cancer
b) influenza
c) shingles
d) varicella



Which is the best scientific explanation for the increasing concern over the recent outbreaks of avian influenza in Hong Kong and other Asian locations?
a) avian influenza may infect humans.
b) human influenza viruses may exchange genetic material with avian influenza viruses and infect humans more efficiently.
c) avian influenza may spread to other countries.
d) avian influenza may change to another virus that could infect birds.

human influenza viruses may exchange genetic material with avian influenza viruses and infect humans more efficiently.


Which of the following represents the correct order of steps in a typical virus replication cycle?
a) maturation adsorption penetration release synthesis
b) adsorption penetration release maturation synthesis
c) adsorption penetration synthesis maturation release
d) adsorption penetration maturation synthesis release

adsorption penetration synthesis maturation release


What would be a reasonable number of new phages to expect from one round of viral replication in one cell?
a) 2
b) 100
c) 1000
d) 10000



Plaques are:
a) bacterial colonies
b) another name for single viruses
c) areas where bacterial cells have been lysed
d) bacterial film

areas where bacterial cells have been lysed


A lysogenic phage which enters a lytic cycle is said to have undergone:
a) transformation
b) induction
c) transcription
d) lysogenic conversion



Cells taken directly from an animal and cultured in vitro represent:
a) primary cell cultures
b) diploid fibroblast strains
c) continuous cell lines from human embryos
d) continuous cell lines that have been re-isolated from animal tissues

primary cell cultures


A prion is composed of:
a) RNA
b) DNA
c) protein
d) both DNA and RNA



The most conclusive evidence that viruses cause cancers is provided by:
a) the presence of oncogenes in humans
b) the presence of antibodies against viruses in cancer patients
c) treating cancer patients with antibiotics
d) development of a cancer following an injection of viruses

development of a cancer following an injection of viruses


An organism that lives at the expense of another organism is a _____.
a) mutualistic
b) commensal
c) parasite
d) symbiont



Parasites which live within the bodies of other organisms are classified as _____.
a) accidental parasite
b) endoparasites
c) facultative parasites
d) ectoparasites



A mosquito that lives on a host and is itself infected with the protozoa responsible for malaria is an example of:
a) temporary parasitism
b) permanent parasitism
c) hyperparasitism
d) facultative parasitism



Parasites having both male and female reproductive organs are known as _____.
a) obligate parasites
b) schizonts
c) hermaphrodites
d) accidental parasites



Many protists have shells of calcium carbonate called _____.
a) exoskeletons
b) carapaces
c) tests
d) plastrons



Which of the following is not an example of a plantlike protist?
a) Euglenoids
b) Diatoms
c) Amebozoans
d) Dinoflagellates



Water molds and slime molds have characteristics typical of _____.
a) fungi and plants
b) fungi and animals
c) animals and plants
d) None of these

fungi and animals


Protozoa are almost always:
a) multicellular
b) parasitic
c) heterotrophic
d) photosynthetic



The major characteristic used to divide protozoans into four major groups is _____.
a) type of feeding behavior
b) habitat
c) reproduction strategies
d) type of motility

type of motility


Malaria is a result of infection by a/an _____.
a) Mastigophoran
b) Amebozoan
c) Apicomplexan
d) Ciliophoran



The proper order of development of Plasmodium from the time of infection to the parasitization of red blood cells is:
a) trophozoite merozoite sporozoite
b) sporozoite merozoite trophozoite
c) trophozoite sporozoite merozoite
d) sporozoite trophozoite merozoite

sporozoite merozoite trophozoite


Which of the following statements about protists is true?
a) The protozoan responsible for malaria is classified as a ciliate.
b) Eutrophication occurs when protists stop growing in a body of water.
c) Amoeba move by means of cilia.
d) All protists are eukaryotic.

All protists are eukaryotic


A typical fungus consists of a mass called a ________ made up of many threadlike structures called ________ .
a) thallus, mycelium
b) mycelium, hyphae
c) hyphae, mycelium
d) mycelium, thallus

mycelium, hyphae


Cells walls in fungi are often made of _____.
a) cellulose
b) peptidoglycan
c) chitin
d) calcium carbonate



Fungi are never _____.
a) saprophytes
b) obligate parasites
c) facultative parasites
d) heterotrophs

obligate parasites


Fungi can be differentiated from plants by the fact that:
a) fungi are all unicellular, plants are all multicellular
b) fungi do not have a cell wall, plants have a cell wall
c) fungi cannot photosynthesize, plants can photosynthesize
d) fungi are prokaryotic, plants are eukaryotic

fungi cannot photosynthesize, plants can photosynthesize


Fungi with no known sexual stage (in their life cycle) are assigned to the phylum _____.
a) Zygomycota
b) Ascomycota
c) Basidiomycota
d) Deuteromycota



One major difference between flatworms and roundworms is that _____.
a) roundworms are never parasites
b) flatworms are never parasites
c) roundworms have a pseudocoelom
d) flatworms don't infect humans

roundworms have a pseudocoelom


Undercooked pork is most likely to pass along _____.
a) Schistosoma
b) Echinococcus
c) Wuchereria
d) Trichinella



Arthropods are responsible for transmitting ________ pathogens.
a) viral
b) bacterial
c) protozoan
d) viral, bacterial and protozoan

viral, bacterial and protozoan