Chapter 1

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Nutrition in Nursing
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1

Americans are not eating enough of the specific foods or food groups that may help protect against:

chronic disease

2

Good nutrition supports all aspects of health:

healthy pregnancy outcomes, normal growth, development and aging, healthy body weight, lower risk of disease, helping to treat acute and chronic disease

3

___% of people in a study ranked their health as very good or excellent. ____% of them are overweight or obese.

57, 55

4

Healthy people is a program updated every:

10 years

5

Chronic diseases are responsible of:

68% of all world-wide deaths.

6

In the U.S. chronic diseases are responsible for:

7 of the top 10 causes of death

7

Chronic diseases are:

the main causes of poor health and disability.

8

Children and adolescents have:

chronic diseases too.

9

At all ages:

chronic disease risk is linked to overweight and obesity

10

Mix of food consumed throughout can determine:

Whether a chronic disease develops or regress

11

Effective and timely nutrition and lifestyle intervention can prevent or minimize:

Morbidity and mortality for many major chronic diseases

12

Nutrition and lifestyle intervention can prevent or minimize:

Obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers

13

Other factors that contribute to chronic disease risks are:

Smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, excessive alcohol intake

14

Food is a mixture of:

Essential and nonessential components

15

Essential components:

Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, and water

16

The body cannot make:

essential components

17

Essential components has to be obtained thru:

Food

18

Plants provide:

fiber and a variety of nonnutrient compounds

19

The varity of nonnutrient compounds provided by plants are known as:

Phytonutrients

20

Phytonutrients have:

health-enhancing biological activity in the body

21

Healthier eating and increased physical activity have increasingly shown:

benefits that equal if not surpass those of pharmacologic intervention for several chronic diseases; often with less risk, fewer side effects and lower costs

22

Dietary guidelines advisory committee defines dietary patterns as:

the quantities, proportions, variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets, and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed

23

Healthy eating patterns reduce the risk of:

chronic disease

24

Poor diet quality is considered to be:

a major risk factor for several chronic diseases

25

There is no:

universal definition or measure of diet quality

26

Diet quality is assessed to how closely eating patterns conform to:

dietary recommendations & healthy eating patterns

27

Diet quality is based on:

How closely a person's intake correlates to specified criteria.

28

Components with positive health benefits, such as fruits, veggies, whole grains and high intake get a ______ score.

High

29

Components of high intake of saturated fats, trans fats, added sugar get a _____ score.

Low

30

Unsaturated fats are preferred over:

Saturated fats

31

You need to consider the amount of:

Sodium

32

You need to stress:

nut consumption

33

Alcohol consumption should be:

moderate

34

There is a higher score for:

low red meat and processed meat intake

35

HIgh diet quality scores are a reflection of:

phytonutrient-rich plant foods, fish and poultry faored over red meat, low-fat dairy, coffee, tea, and moderate alcohol consumption and less processed foods.

36

Women have been found to have a ______ diet quality then men

higher

37

Older adults have a ______ diet quality than younger and middle-aged adults

higher

38

As you get older, you increase your scores as you increase you:

fruit, veggies, whole grains, calories from solid fats and added sugars

39

Diet quality was the lowest in people who had completed"

12 years or less of education.

40

Diet quality was the highest in those people who had:

completed college

41

Who had the best diet quality?

Mexican Americans

42

Who had the poorest diet quality?

Non-Hispanic blacks

43

What is strongly associated with diet quality?

Socioeconomic status

44

Household food insecurity describes households whose access to adequate food is:

limited by a lack of money.

45

The extent and severity of household food insecurity is monitored by:

USDA

46

Food deserts are predominately in:

low-income areas

47

Food deserts are defined as living:

more than 1 mile from a super market in an urban area or more than 10 miles from a supermarket in a rural area

48

Food deserts access to fresh fruits and veggies and other health whole foods is:

low

49

SNAP households are more sensitive to price than:

proximity

50

Researchers found that in low-income neighborhoods, limited access to a supermarket showed only a:

modest negative effect on diet quality

51

Data confirms that diet quality did improve (only slightly) when consumers with limited shopping options shopped:

farther from home

52

Results suggest that improving access to healthy foods by itself will:

not likely have a major impact on diet quality

53

The cost of food income available to spend on food, consumer knowledge about nutrition and food preferences may be:

more important factors than access

54

Database is a:

comprehensive collection of related information organized for convenient access.

55

Bioinformatics are:

interdisciplinary filed that uses computer science and information technology to develop and improve techniques to make it easier to acquire, store, organize, retrieve and use complex biological data

56

Bioinformatics will enable researchers to:

make connections between intake and health that were not previously possible

57

Genomics are an:

area of genetics that studies all genes in cells or tissues at the DNA and mRNA level

58

Genomics has the potential to:

redefine the role of nutrition in health and disease risk

59

Nutritional genomics is an:

umbrella term that includes nutrigentics, nutrigenomics, and nutritional epigenomics,

60

Nutrigentics, nutrigenomics and nutritional epigenomics all pertain to how:

nutrients and genes interact and are expressed to reveal phenotype outcomes, including disease risk

61

Nutrigenetics are:

the effect of genetic differences on the response to dietary intake and the ultimate impact on disease risk

62

Nutrigenomics are:

the interaction between dietary components and the genome and the resulting changes in proteins and other substances that impact gene expression

63

Epigenomics are:

the impact of diet on changes in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence

64

Genomics has the potential to produce:

major nutrition breakthroughs in the prevention of chronic disease and obesity and to identify new biomarkers that will more accurately assess a person's health and nutritional status.

65

Biomarkers are:

a measurable biological molecule found in blood, other bodily fluids or tissues that is a sign of a normal of abnormal process or of a condition or disease

66

Most chronic diseases are:

multigenic

67

Multifactorial and genetic mutations only:

partially predict disease risk

68

Other factors that predict disease risk are:

family history, lab values, environmental risk factors, and nutritional therapy

69

Nutrition affects the practice of ____ health-care professionals

all

70

Understanding and applying nutritional knowledge and skills enables all members of the health-care team to effectively:

assess dietary intake and provide appropriate guidance, counseling and treatment to patients

71

Patient care is improved when:

evidence-based nutrition care is synchronized and reinforced by all health professionals

72

In 1992, Florence Nightingale noted that nutrition is:

the second most important area of nursing

73

Nurses were responsible for preparing and serving food before ______ was founded

dietetics

74

Nurses need to know:

assessment and monitoring, nutrition therapy and enteral and parenteral nutrition

75

Nutrition care responsibilities for nurses are:

nursing history and physicial exam

76

Nursing history and physical exam gets provided to the dietitian so they can:

complete a nutritional assessment

77

Nurses monitor patient's:

intake, weight, and tolerance to food

78

Nurses serve as liason between:

dietitian and physician and other members of health-care team

79

Nurses reinforce:

nutrition counseling provided by dietitian, provide basic nutrition education and stress the importance of eating healthy and participating in regular physical activity

80

Nurses screen hospitalized patients for:

malnutrition risk

81

Malnutrition risks are:

bad nutrition, protein-calories under nutrition

82

Nutrition screening is designed to detect:

actual or potential malnutrition

83

When a patient is found to not have malnutrition it does not mean that the patient is without:

health risks

84

Patients identified as high or moderate risk are referred to a:

dietitian

85

Why are patients identified as high or moderate risk referred to a dietitian?

For further nutrition assessment, diagnosis and intervention

86

Patients determined to be at low risk are rescreen within:

a specific time frame to identify changes in risk

87

Joint Commission specifies that nutrition screening be conducted within:

24 hours after admission

88

Who are responsible for conducting nutrition screenings?

Staff nurses, during admission

89

Most clinical screening tools address these 4 basic questions:

recent weight loss, recent food intake, current BMI, disease severity

90

Nutrition assessment is:

in-depth analysis of a person's nutritional status

91

Nutrition assessment focuses on:

moderate-to-high risk patients with suspected of confirmed protein-energy malnutrition

92

The nutrition assessment review leads to a:

nutrition diagnosis

93

The nutrition assessment data includes:

medical history, clinical diagnosis, physical exam findings, anthropometric data, lab data, food/nutrient intake and functional assessments.

94

General characteristics for the diagnosis of Adult malnutriotn are:

weight loss over time, inadequate food and nutrition intake compared to requirements, loss of muscle mass, loss of fat mass, local or generalized fluid accumulation, measurably reduced hand grip strength

95

Patients who are not found to have malnutrition may also benefit from contact with dietitian for:

Additional nutrition education, have difficulty choosing culturally appropriate foods, who are eating poorly