Procedures for Radiology Tech Flashcards


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1

On average, how many separate bones make up the adult vertebral column?

26

2

The spinal cord tapers off to a point distally at the vertebral level of:

L1-L2

3

Which of the following is the first compensatory spinal curvature to develop in the young child?

Cervical

4

Scoliosis is defined as:

abnormal or exaggerated lateral curvature

5

Kyphosis:

abnormal thoracic curvature with increased convexity

6

The bony structures connected directly to the vertebral body are the:

pedicles

7

The most posterior aspect of a typical vertebra is the :

spinous process

8

The joints between articular processes of vertebra are termed:

zygopophaseal joints

9

Which aspect of the intervertebral disk is composed of semi-gelatinous materal?

nucleus pulposus

10

Which of the following statements is true?

All thoracic vertebra have at least one facet for rib articulation

11

Which of the following is true for a typical adult vertebra?

the transverse processes extend laterally from the junction of the pedicles and the laminae

12

Where is the articular pillar located on a cervical vertebra?

between the inferior and superior articular processes

13

Which term best defines or decribes the vertebral body of C1?

There is no body

14

Which of the following thoracic vertebra(e) possesses no facets for costotransverse joints?

T11 & T12

15

The Z joints for the typical cervical vertebra lie at an angle of ______ in relation to the midsaggital plane.

90

Lateral shows C-spine z- joints

16

The z-joints for the thoracic spine lie at angle of _____ in relation to the MSP

70-75

Thoracic oblique show z-joints at 70-75 rotation

17

T2-T3 intervertebral disk space is found at the level of?

card image

jugular notch

18

The gonion corresponds to the vertebral level?

C3

19

The xyphoid process corresponds to the vertebral level of?

T9-10

20

Which of the following clinical conditions will require a decrease in manual technical factors?

advanced osteoporosis

21

Which factor is most important to open up the intervertebral joint spaces for a lateral thoracic spine projection?

keep vertebral column parallel to tabletop

22

Which position of projection of the C spine will best demonstrate the z-joint spaces between C1 and C2?

AP open mouth

23

Along with the upper incisors, what other bony landmark must be aligned for the AP open mouth projection?

base of the skull

24

How much CR angulation is required for the AP axial projection of the cervical spine?

15-20 cephalic

25

Why are the anterior oblique positions preferred over the posterior oblique positions of the C spine?

to reduce the thyroid dose

26

Which of the following positions will demonstrate the left intervertebral foramina of the c spine?

card image

LAO

Anterior oblique is CCF, so closest to IR would be LAO

27

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the Z joints of the C spine?

card image

lateral

28

Which of the following is not a correct evaluation criteria for the AP axial C spine projection?

  • C3 to T2 vertebral bodies should be visualized
  • Spinous processes are equal distances from the vertebral body lateral borders
  • center of the collimation field is at C4
29

Which of the following factors does not apply to a lateral projection of the C spine?

suspend respiration upon full inspiration

30

The chin is extended for a lateral projection of the C spine to:

To prevent superimposition of the mandible over the c spine

31
card image

The PA projection (Judd method) is intended to demonstrate the atlantoaxial joint between c1 and c2. T or F?

card image

False

32

What type of CR angle is recommended when performing the AP axial C spine projection erect?

20 cephalad

33

What type of CR angle is required for posterior oblique positions of the cervical spine?

15 cephalic

34

Which of the following factors will enhance the visibility of the vertebral bodies during a lateral projection of the thoracic spine?

use a breathing technique

35

Which of the following positions will best demonstrate the left z joints of the thoracic spine?

RPO

36

How much rotation of the body is required for an LAO projection of the thoracic spine?

70

37

Which of the following projections will project the dens within the shadow of the foramen magnum?

AP projection Fuchs method

38

A radiograph of an AP open mouth projection of the cervical spine reveals that the z joints are not symmetric. No fracture of subluxation is present. Which of the following positioning errors most likely led to this radiographic outcome?

rotation of the spine

39

A radiograph of an AP axial projection of the cervical spine reveals that the intervertebral joints are not open. Te following analog factors were used for this projection: 5 degrees cephalad, 40 inch SID, grid, slight extension of the skull, and the CR centered to the thyroid cartilage. Which of the following modifications should be made during the repeat exposure?

increase the CR angulation

40

A radiograph of an AP thoracic spine projection reveals that the upper thoracic spine is overexposed. The lower vertebrae have acceptable density and contrast. Which one of the following modifications will improve the visability of the upper thoracic spine?

use a compensating (wedge) filter

41

A radiograph of the lateral thoracic spine reveals that there is excessive density along the posterior aspect of the spine. Even with good collimation, the scatter radiation reaching the IR obscures the spinous processes. What can the tech do to improve the visability of the posterior elements of the spine?

Place a lead mat on the tabletop just posterior to the patient

42

A radiograph of an AP open mouth projection reveals that the base of the skull is superimposed over the dens. what positioning error led to this radiographic outcome?

Excessive extension of the skull

43

A radiograph of a lateral projection of the c spine reveals that the ramus of the mandible is superimposed over the spine. What could the tech have done to prevent this?

increase the extension of the skull

44

a radiograph on an RAO of the c spine reveals that the lower intervertebral foramina are not open. The upper vertebral foramina are well visualized. Which positioning error most likely led to this radiographic outcome?

insufficient rotation of the upper body

45

A pt comes to the radiology dept for a c spine routine. the study is ordered for non-traumatic reasons. The AP open mouth projection reveals that the base of the skull and upper incisors are superimposed, but they are obscuring the upper portion of the dens. On the repeat exposure, what should the tech do to demonstrate the entire dens?

Perform the Fuchs of the Judd

46

A pt enter the ED because of MVA. the pt is on a backboard and wearing a cervical collar. The tech is concerned about the artifacts that the collar will project on the spine during the horizontal beam lateral projection. What should the tech do in this situation?

Leave the collar on during the exposure

47

A lateral projection of the T spine reveals that the upper aspect, which is a primary area of interest on this pt, is obscured by the pt's shoulders. which of the following changes will best demonstrate this region of the spine?

Perform a cervico-thoracic (swimmers) lateral

48

A pt enters the ED with a c spine injury as a result of a fall. The initial horizontal beam lateral projection reveals no subluxation or fx. The ED physicians is concerned about a whiplash injury. Which of the following routines would be most helpful in diagnosing this type of injury?

AP ottonello method (wagging jaw)

Shows underlying vertebra

49

A pt comes to radiology for a Thoracic spine routine. the pt has a history of arthritis of the spine. the radiologist requests additional images of the Z joints. What positions and/or projections would demonstrate these structures?

70 oblique projections

intervertebral foramina = 90

Z-joints = 70

50

an RPO position of the c spine requires a 45 degree oblique of the body with a 15 degree caudad CR angle. T or F

False

RAO and LAO are 15 degree caudal

LPO RPO are 15 degree cephalic

51

another term for breathing technique during exposure is orthostatic technique. T or F

true

52

the anterior oblique position t spine demonstrates the upside z joints

T of F

false

anterior oblique shows downside z-joint

posterior oblique shows upside z joint

53

a digital or CR image taken of a lateral thoracic spine projection demonstrates poor viability of the spine. The image was taken on a 14X17 inch IR. The following factors were used 80 KV 80 mAs, 40 inch SID and collimation to the size of the IR. Which of the following mods will result in a more diagnostic image?

Collimate to spine

54

a pt comes to radiology for a follow up study of the c spine. the pt has spinal fusion between C5-6 performed 6 months earlier. His physician wants to assess the C spine for anterior to posterior mobility. What projections would show this?

hyperflexion and hyperextension

55

which of the following projections will best demonstrate a compression fracture of the thoracic spine?

lateral

56

a pt enters the ED due to an MVA. He is on a backboard and in a cervical collar. The initial lateral cervical spine projection demonstrtes C1-C. the pt has broad and thick shoulders. because the hospital is in a rural setting, no CT scanner is available. Which of the following mods would best demonstrate the lower C spine?

swimmers

57

Which of the following bones is part of the floor of the cranium?

card image

temporal

58

how many bones make up the facial bones region?

14

59

The widest portion of the cranium is found at the level of the ____?

parietal tubercles

60

What is the name of the joint found beteen the lateral condylar process of the skull and the atlas of C1?

atlanto-occipital joint

61

the slight depression above each eyebrow is termed?

supraorbital groove

62

Which of the following cranial bones does not articulate with the parietal bone?

frontal sphenoid occipital all do touch the parietal bone

63

the left mastoid fontanel becomes what as an adult?

the left asterion

64

there are a total of ______ fontanels in an infant?

6

65

which of the following landmarks corresponds with the level of the petrous ridge?

Top of ear attachment

66

the pituitary gland is associates with and protected by the ______ bone

sphenoid

67

which cranial bone contains the cribiform plate?

ethmoid

68

which of the following sutures separates the parietal from the occipital bone?

lambdoidal suture

69

which of the following terms describes the anterior fontanel found in an adult skull?

bregma

70

which of the following terms describes the small irregular bones sometimes found in the sutures?

wormian

71

an average shape skull with a 47 degree angle between the petrous pyramids and the MSP is classified as:

mesocephalic

72

which term descirbes the small flap of cartilage covering the opeing to the ear?

tragus

73

what is the difference in degrees between the IOML and the OML?

7-8 degrees

74

which one of the following technical considerations is most critical for demonstrating air/fluid levels within the cranium?

horizontal beam

75
card image

a radiograph of an AP axial projection of the cranium reveals the dorsum sellae is projected below the foramen magnum but the posterior arch of C1 is visable within the foramen. which of the following positioning errors led to this radiographic outcome?

excessive CR angulation

For an AP Towne bring the OML perpendicular to IR

Angle CR 30 degrees caudal to OML (37 to IOML)

center 2 &1/2 above the glabella

76

which of the following positioning error most often results in a repeat exposure of a cranial position?

rotation

77

a radiograph of a PA axial projection (Caldwell) of the cranium reveals that the petroud ridges are located at the level of the lower 1/3 of the orbits. The tech performed this projection with the CR angled 15 degrees caudal to the OML, How must positioning be altered if a repeat is performed?

positioning is correct, no changes are needed

Q 22 Test skull