A&P 2 Reproductive System

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1

List the two principal functions of the testis?

    1. Produce sperm
    2. Produce Testosterone
2

How might enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?

As it enlarges, layers of tissue surrounding it stops it from expanding causing the gland to press against the urethra. THis constriction of the urethra may lead to non passage of the urine or sperm.

3

The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers?

Ovulation

4

The rete testis is connected to the epididymis by?

Large efferent ductules

5

Why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity?

Because the testes produce sperm at 2 degrees less than normal body temp.

6

The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. Each of these lobes contains one to four______which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the_______?

  • Seminiferous tubules
  • Rete testie
7

On average a typical ejaculation releases approximately how many sperm cells?

300 Million

8

Describe the composition of semen, and name all structures contributing to its formation?

Sperm and the alkaline secretions of the prostate, seminal vesicles (also containing fructose) and the bulbourethral glands.

9

Of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?

It helps neutralize the sperm against the acid environment of the female reproductive tract

10

The following is a list of structures of the male reproductive tract: ductus deferens, urethra, ejaculatory duct, epididymis. Put them in correct order in which sperm pass through these structures from the testes to the penis?

  • Epididymis
  • Ductus Deferens
  • Ejaculatory duct
  • Urethra
11

How many sperm cells are formed from a primary spermatocyte?

2

12

A common part of any physical examination of the male is palpation of the prostate. How is this accomplished?

Physician gently inserts finger through the anterior wall of the rectum

13

At the time of birth the ovaries contain only ______ oocytes?

Primary

14

During oogenesis the first meiotic division is completed just prior to?

ovulation (first polar body) secondary oocyte

15

ova develop from stem cells called?

Oogonia

16

an ovum will only complete meiosis if it is?

If it is fertilized by sperm

17

Sperm develop from stem cells called?

Spermatogonia

18

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is?

Progesterone

19

Using the following terms, trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra: rete testis, epididymis, seminiferous tubule, ductus deferens.?

Seminiferous tubules => Rete testis => Epididymis => Ductus Deferens

20

The secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary gland is reduced by…?

Inhibin

21

Projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septae, divide the testis into______?

Lobules

22

Do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? Why or why not?

Yes, because there is no anatomic continuity between the ovary and the first part of the duct system(uterine tube)

23

Name the structures composing the external genitalia, or vulva, of the female?

  1. Labia majora:
    • are external rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin that enclose and protect underlying organs and tissues.
  2. Labia minora:
    • are flattened, longitudinal folds between labia majora and they are well supplied with blood vessels
  3. Clitoris:
    • an excitatory organ that resembles male penis. It is a small projection at the anterior end of the labia, and it is composed of two columns of erectile tissue
  4. Vestibule:
    • is space between labia minora that encloses vaginal and urethral openings. Vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulation.
24

Match the terms provided with the descriptive statements bellow: fimbriae; uterine tube; uterus; clitoris; hymen; ovary

    1. site of fetal development
    2. partially closes the vaginal canal
    3. becomes erect during sexual excitement
    4. egg typically fertilized here
    5. produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone
    6. fingerlike ends of the uterine tube
    1. site of fetal development
      1. Uterus
    2. partially closes the vaginal canal
      1. Hyman
    3. becomes erect during sexual excitement
      1. Clitoris
    4. egg typically fertilized here
      1. Uterine Tube
    5. produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone
      1. Ovary
    6. fingerlike ends of the uterine tube
      1. Fimbriae
25

What is an ectopic pregnancy, and how can it happen?

When a fertilised egg implants itself outside of the uterus (womb) usually in one of the fallopian tubes.

Ask teacher

26

List secondary sexual characteristics in both male and female?

  • Female:
    • Growth of breasts in female
  • Male
    • Deepening voice in and facial hair growth in male
27

The inner mucosal layer of the uterine wall is the?

Endometrium

28

Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect: vaginal orifice, anus, urethral opening, and clitoris?

Clitoris -> Urethral Opening -> Vaginal Orifice -> Anus

29

Assume a couple has just consummated the sex act and the male’s sperm have been deposited in the woman’s vagina. Trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract?

  1. Vagina
  2. Cervix
  3. Uterus
  4. Fallopian tube
30

A mass of erectile tissue located at the anterior margin of the labia minora is the?

Clitoris

31

Define ovulation?

to produce and discharge eggs from an ovary or ovarian follicle

32

Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of?

  • Progesterone
  • Estrogen
33

The structure the sperm enters upon exiting the ductus deferens is the?

Ejaculatory duct

34

What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the male penis?

The tissue can become engorged with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device.

35

A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for?

Follicle Maturation

36

Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out?

    1. Which of these is sloughed during menses?
    2. Which contracts during childbirth?
  • Endometrium, Myometrium and Perimetrium
  • Which of these is sloughed during menses?
    • Endometrium
  • Which contracts during childbirth?
    • Myometrium
37

Describe the procedure for self-examination of the breasts. (Men are not exempt from breast cancer)?

While laying down, place one arm behind your head and with the three middle fingers of the other arm palpate the breast in a circular motion, pressing first lightly, then with increasing pressure. Check the entire breast systematically using a vertical patter from superior lateral to inferior medial regions

38

The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the?

Uterus

39

What is the function of uterus?

Organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo

40

Describe the process of synapsis?

The pairing of homologous chromosomes (23 tetrads become attached to spindle fibers & begin to align on the equator.

41

Define homologous chromosomes?

Pair of chromosomes that have the same genes at the same location but mayne different alle

42

The developing follicle cells secrete?

Estrogen

43

A general list of organs of reproductive system?

  1. Gonads (ovaries and Testes)
  2. Ductus and Tubes
  3. Accessory Glands
  4. Perineal Structures
44

A Pap smear is used to detect abnormal cells in the?

Cervix

45

Why are spermatids not considered functional gametes?

They are non-motile and have too much excess baggage to function well in a reproductive capacity

46

Sperm cells are stored within human males in the….?

Epididymis

47

The structure that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the?

Ductus deferens

48

Differentiate between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis?

  1. Spermatogenesis: Formation of sperm cells
  2. Spermiogenesis: Process of sperm cell maturation from a spermatid
49

The life span of a sperm is very short. What anatomical characteristics might lead you to suspect this even if you didn’t know its life span?

No cytoplasm to store nutrients.

50

Sperm production occurs in the?

Seminiferous Tubules

51

The sequence of events leading to germ cell formation in the female begins during fetal development. By the time the child is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to….. and are at …….phase of meiosis?

  • Primary Oocyte
  • Prophase 1
52

The small paired structures at the base of the penis that produce a lubricating secretion are the?

Bulbourethral glands

53

The female gametes develop in structures called follicles. What is a follicle?

A saclike structure containing follicle cells in one or more layers that enclose a developing gamete.

54

What is a corpus luteum?

ovarian structure that forms from a follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen; prepares uterine lining to foster an embryo

55

The tubular part of the uterus that extends downward into the upper vagina is the?

Cervix

56

Why are spermatids not considered functional gametes?

  • Non-motile
  • Too much excess baggage
57

The tubular structure that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is the?

Seminal Vesicle

58

When in the uterine cycle are progesterone levels the highest? Why?

  • Secretory phase
    • Targets the uterine endometrium to prepare for implantation
    • Causes it to be thick
    • Glandular and vascular
59

What is the major hormone produced by the corpus luteum?

Progesterone

60

The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four…………. ; the final product of oogenesis is one …….. and three ………... ?

  1. What is the function of this unequal cytoplasmic division seen during oogenesis in the female?
  2. What is the fate of the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis? Why this happens?
  1. Spermatids
  2. Ovum
  3. Polar Bodies
  1. What is the function of this unequal cytoplasmic division seen during oogenesis in the female?
    1. To provide the ovum or functional gamete w/adequate nutritional reserves so that it can survive it;s journey to the uterus.
  2. What is the fate of the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis? Why this happens?
    1. They will deteriorate; they lack sustaining cytoplasm w/nutrient reserves.
61

During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle?

A new layer of endometrium is formed becoming velvety, thick, well vascularized

62

Why does the corpus luteum deteriorate toward the end of the ovarian cycle?

Because blood levels of the anterior pituitary hormone LH are very low

63

The cells that are formed at the end of meiosis during sperm production are called?

Spermatids

64

When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely? Explain why.

Anytime but the three-day interval (days 14-16) around ovulation (28 day cycle assumed)

65
card image

The menstrual cycle depends on events within the female ovary. The stages of the menstrual cycle are listed below. For each, note its approximate time span and the related events in the uterus; and then to the right, record the ovarian events occurring simultaneously. Pay particular attention to hormonal events.

card image
66
  1. The following statements deal with anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones and with hormonal interrelationships. Name the hormone(s) described in each statement. Key: LH (luteinizing hormone); estrogen; progesterone
    1. produced by primary follicles in the ovary
    2. stimulates LH release by the anterior pituitary
    3. exert negative feedback on the anterior pituitary relative to FSH secretion
    4. ovulation occurs after its burstlike release
    5. stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and estrogen
    6. maintains the hormonal production of the corpus luteum in a nonpregnant woman
  1. produced by primary follicles in the ovary
    • Estrogen
  2. stimulates LH release by the anterior pituitary
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  3. exert negative feedback on the anterior pituitary relative to FSH secretion
    • Inhibin
  4. ovulation occurs after its burstlike release
    • LH (Luteinizing Hormone)
  5. stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and estrogen
    • LH
  6. maintains the hormonal production of the corpus luteum in a nonpregnant woman
    • Progesterone
67

Define zygote?

a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes

68

The role of the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone in males is to?

Initiate Sperm Production in the testes

69

What is the primary function of the corpus luteum?

Secretion of progesterone for maintenance of pregnancy.

70

Which tube carries sperm from the scrotum to the abdominopelvic cavity?

Ductus Deferens

71

Fertilization of the ovum usually occurs?

isthmus of the uterine tube

72

In male, which gland is located just inferior to the urinary bladder?

Prostate

73

List functions of vagina?

  1. Copulatory organ
  2. Birth Canal
74

In correct chronological order, the three phases of the human uterine cycle are…?

menstrual → proliferative → secretory

75

On average a typical ejaculation releases approximately how many sperm cells?

300 Million

76

In male a tube/duct used by both urinary system and reproductive system is called…?

Urethra

77

Which portion of the penis contains the urethra?

Corpus Spongiosum

78

List accessory glands of Male reproductive system?

    1. Seminal Vesicles
    2. Prostate gland
    3. Bulbourethral gland
79

The male and female genital structures that consist mostly of erectile tissue include the……..and ……?

    1. Penis
    2. Clitoris
80

The structure that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the?

Prostate gland

81

List secondary sexual characteristics in both male and female?

  • Female
    • Growth of breasts in female
  • Male
    • Deepening voice in and facial hair growth in male
82

Where in the body are sperm stored?

Epididymis

83

Sperm cells are stored primarily in the?

Epididymis

84

The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. Each of these lobes contains one to four______which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the_______?

  • Seminiferous tubules
  • Reti Testes
85

Among human males, both semen and urine normally travel along the…?

Urethra

86

List hormones required for Spermatogenesis?

  • FSH
  • Testosterone
  • LH
87

Erection in the male is controlled by the _____ nervous system, while ejaculation is controlled by the _____ nervous system?

    1. Parasympathetic
    2. Sympathetic
88

Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by?

Peristaltic contractions

89

The female structure that corresponds to the male penis is the?

Clitoris

90

An enzyme that sperm secretes that is important for penetration is?

Hyaluronidase

91

Ovulation is stimulated by a surge which hormone?

LH

92

A reproductive hormone that is secreted directly from a structure in the brain is…?

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

93

During which phase of menstrual cycle a new functional layer is formed in the uterus?

Proliferation Phase

94

Sperm cannot fertilize an egg until they undergo?

Capacitation

95

Fertilization occurs in the?

Uterine tube

96

Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a maze of passageways called the?

Rete Testis

97

Human sperm cells first arise in the….?

Seminiferous tubules

98

Immediately after ovulation, estrogen and progesterone are secreted by the?

Corpus Luteum

99

Increased temperature of the human scrotum would…?

Reduce the fertility of the man by impairing spermatogenesis

100

The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is?

leutinizing hormone (LH)

101

During part of the normal menstrual cycle, when the levels of progesterone and estrogen decrease, what will occur?

Menstruation

102

In correct chronological order, the three phases of the human ovarian cycle are….?

follicular → ovulation → luteal

103

During which phase of menstrual cycle the old functional layer is sloughed off?

Menstrual Phase

104

The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the?

Prepuce (Forskin)

105

What triggers menstruation (menses)?

When levels of progesterone drops

106

Most of the fluid in ejaculated human semen is produced by…?

Seminal Vesicles.

107

When in the uterine cycle are progesterone levels the highest? Why?

Secretory phase. Because it targets the uterine endometrium to prepare for implantation, causes it to be thick, glandular and vascular

108

The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the?

Cervix

109

The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. Each of these lobes contains one to four______which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the_______?

    1. Seminiferous tubules
    2. Reti Testes
110

When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely? Explain why?

Anytime but the three-day interval (days 14-16) around ovulation (28 day cycle assumed)

111

What are the functions of sustentacular cells of the seminiferous tubules?

  1. Play a key role in spermatogenesis
  2. Functions:
    1. Maintains blood-testis barrier.
    2. Supports mitosis and meiosis.
    3. Supports spermiogenesis.
    4. The secretion of inhibin.
    5. The secretion of androgen-binding protein.
    6. The secretion of Mullerian-inhibiting factor.
112

What uterine tissue undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle?

Endometrium

113

The sequence of events leading to germ cell formation in the female begins during fetal development. By the time the child is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to? primary oocytes In view of this fact, how does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to that of the male?

much smaller, and the total number is predetermined

114

The epithelium of the seminiferous tubules consists of?

Spermatogenic cells and sustentacular cells

115

The muscular layer of the uterus is the?

Myometrium