Phonology File 3

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created 4 years ago by Sanjay_Shiwdas
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Chapter 3
Files 3.1 - 3.2
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1

Phoneme

a class of speech sounds that seem to be variants of the same sound

a structure of abstract sound types that are constituted by the dominant features that are used to differentiate the meaningful signs (or forms) in a language

Features that by opposition create opposing abstract sound-types

2

Allophone

the particular members of a phoneme class

The various ways a phoneme is pronounced

EX: Phoneme: /t/

Allophones of /t/: [t], [th], [T], [?]

Phonemes are not observable in a stream of speech, only the allophones of a phoneme are.

3

Minimal pair

a pair of words whose pronunciation differs by exactly one sound and that have different meanings

4

Contrastive Distribution

a case in which the two sounds occur in the same phonetic environment, and using one rather than the other changes the meaning of the word.

5

Complementary Distribution

when two sounds are part of the same phoneme and appear in different sets of environments.

no minimal pairs exist among words in complementary distribution and their occurrence is predictable.

6

Free Variation

Sounds that are non-contrastive and whose presence is not predictable.

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Basic Allophone

the allophone that appears most often and has the same features as the abstract, unspoken phoneme.

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Restricted Allophone/ Derived Allophones

variations that are determined by rules that derive how the phoneme is pronounced based on how it is conditioned by certain phonological environments.

9

Natural Class

a group of sounds in a language that share one or more articulatory or auditory property, to the exclusion of all other sounds in that language.

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Obstruent

A property used to describe natural classes.

produced with an obstruction of airflow: stops fricatives and affricates.

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Sonorant

A property used to describe natural classes.

segments produced with a relatively open passage for the airflow: nasals, glides, liquids and vowels

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Assimilation

...

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Overlapping Distrbution

Sounds that can occur in the same environment

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Palatalization

...

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Dissimilation

...

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Insertion

...

17

Deletion

...

18

Metathesis

...

19

Strengthening

...

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Weakening

...

21

Phonological Process

...

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Vowel Harmony

...

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Near Minimal Pairs

...

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noncontrastive

When interchanging two sounds doesn't result in a change in meaning.

Ex: [p] and [ph] are noncontrastive in English because switching these two sounds in a word doesn't change the meaning of the word. It is still understood as /p/.

[pat] and [phat] are still the same word "pot"

25

Distribution

the set of phonetic environments in which a phone occurs.

EX: nasal vowels (phone in question) only occur right before a nasal consonant (environment)

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Alternation

a difference between two or more phonetic forms that you might otherwise expect to be related.

when we find different pronunciations of the same word that are linked to particular grammatical contexts

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Difference between sounds that are Contrastive/ Allophonic/ Free Variation

Contrastive sounds: allophones of different phonemes, unpredictably distributed, and you can tell by the presence of minimal pairs and contrastive distribution

Allophonic sounds: allophones of the same phoneme, predictably distributed, and you can tell by complementary distribution and the absence of minimal pairs.

Sounds in free variation: are allophones of the same phoneme, unpredictably distributed, and you can tell by overlapping distribution with no difference in meaning.