Microbiology Chapter 6 Flashcards


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1

All the following apply to the process of anabolism except

products result from the breakdown of large molecules.

2

A metabolic pathway

all the above are true.

3

Any process that releases energy is referred to as a ________ reaction.

exergonic.

4

Enzymes play an important role in biological chemistry because they

lower the amount of activation energy required for a reaction.

5

Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and thereby

lower the necessary energy input.

6

Proteins that bring about chemical changes while remaining essentially unchanged are referred to as

enzymes.

7

Which of the following molecules is an enzyme?

sucrase

8

Which of the following statements is the most correct for enzyme reactions?

Enzymes are specific for only one reaction, in one direction.

9

The place on the enzyme where the enzyme interacts with the substrate is called the

active site

10

All the following characteristics apply to enzymes except

ATP is an enzyme.

11

Two important coenzymes that function in oxidative phosphorylation are

FAD and NAD+.

12

Inorganic ions that compose parts of enzymes are referred to as

cofactors.

13

Heat is useful in the destruction of bacteria because heat

denatures enzymes by altering their tertiary structures.

14

Which one of the following statements is not true of feedback inhibition?

Usually, the last enzyme in a metabolic pathway is inhibited.

15

Sulfonamide drugs work to inhibit enzyme pathways by

Competitive inhibition

16

Chemical energy can be stored in the cell for later use as

ADP.

17

ATP releases its energy by

splitting into a phosphate and ADP.

18

A mole of glucose contains about

690,000 calories of energy

19

The catabolic process in which glucose is converted into pyruvate is called

glycolysis.

20

Which of the following energy reactions takes place in the cytoplasm of all cells?

Glycolysis

21

Which one of the following is not common to anaerobic respiration and fermentation?

Inorganic final electron acceptors

22

The Krebs cycle accounts for all the following except

production of pyruvate from glucose.

23

What is the ATP yield from one glucose molecule by the Krebs cycle, including the electron transport system and chemiosmosis in bacteria?

38.

24

In order for oxidative phosphorylation to take place, the environment must contain a certain amount of

oxygen

25

Which one of the following does not involve a phosphorylation reaction?

The hydrolysis of ATP

26

What does Chemiosmosis involve?

the pumping of protons.

27

The aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa grows on a glucose-containing medium. Metabolic products you would expect to find include

All the above are found.

28

You are studying an obligate anaerobe. Which one of the following pathways can you be assured is occurring?

Glycolysis

29

To be useful as energy sources, proteins must first

be broken into amino acids.

30

The essential step in the catabolism of amino acids is a process known as

deamination.

31

The use of nitrate by E. coli is important to the organism because nitrate

is a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration.

32

In anaerobic respiration, all of the following molecules can be used as final electron acceptors, except

O2 .

33

All the following can be products of carbohydrate catabolism by aerobic or anaerobic respiration except

enzymes.

34

Electrons for oxidative phosphorylation can originate from

both the Krebs cycle and glycolysis reactions.

35

A governing principle of fermentation is that

intermediary organic compounds are used as electron acceptors.

36

Fermentation differs from aerobic respiration because

fermentation does not require that oxygen be present.

37

Fermentation in yeast results in different products than fermentation in Streptococcus lactis because

yeasts contain a different enzyme.

38

All the following are products that can be formed by industrial fermentation except

butter.

39

A bacterium that uses glucose as an energy source has been isolated from an anaerobic environment. After the growth of the bacterium, the pH of the growth medium is measured and found to be very acidic. When analyzed, the medium is found to have a high concentration of lactic acid. This bacterium is most likely metabolizing by a process known as

butter.

40

The energy-fixing reactions and the carbon-fixing reactions refer to

the process of photosynthesis.

41

Ribulose-5-phosphate has an important role to play in

the carbon-fixing reactions of photosynthesis.

42

All the following are associated with photosynthesis except

fungi.

43

Chlorophyll and accessory pigments involved in photosynthesis occur in

photosystems.

44

Green sulfur bacteria photosynthesis can be distinguished from cyanobacterial photosynthesis because green sulfur bacteria fail to produce

oxygen.

45

Most bacteria, as well as all fungi and protozoa, are

chemoheterotrophs.

46

Digestion of cellular compounds

Catabolism

47

Synthesis of cellular compounds

Anabolism

48

Total of biochemical processes of a cell

Both A and B

49

Cells fed glucose and yielding energy by respiration

Catabolism

50

Cells fed glucose and yielding energy by fermentation

Catabolism

51

The metabolism of chemoheterotrophs

Both A and B

52

Involves the Krebs cycle

Catabolism

53

Starch used for cellular energy

Catabolism

54

Photosynthetic reactions that produce glucose

Anabolism

55

Involves glycolysis

Catabolism

56

Glycolysis

yields pyruvate for use in the Krebs cycle.

57

Glycolysis

involves succinate, citrate and fumarate.

58

Krebs cycle

requires cytochromes for electron transport.

59

Oxidative phosphorylation

requires electrons eventually be passed to NADPH.

60

Photosynthesis

requires energy from light to take place.

61

Oxidative phosphorylation

ends with acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms.

62

Photosynthesis

results in the formation of glucose.

63

Photosynthesis

uses chlorophyll as the pigment in the cyanobacteria

64

Krebs cycle

reactions account for the loss of three carbon atoms.

65

Oxidative phosphorylation

results in the formation of water.

66

Krebs cycle

begins when acetyl-CoA combines with oxaloacetate.

67

Photosynthesis

is essentially the opposite of aerobic respiration.

68

Glycolysis

begins with a glucose molecule.

69

Glycolysis

results in a net gain of 2 ATPs.

70

Oxidative phosphorylation

involves a highly significant role for oxygen.

71

Oxidative phosphorylation

stars with the oxidation of NADH.

72

Glycolysis

requires an “investment” of 2 ATPs.

73

Oxidative phosphorylation

results in a high yield of ATP.

74

Krebs cycle

is stimulated by pyruvate from glycolysis.

75

Krebs cycle

generates three carbon dioxide molecules per turn.

76

Chemoautotroph

Uses chemical reactions for energy

77

Photoheterotroph

Uses light energy

78

Chemoheterotroph

Uses chemical reactions for energy

79

Photoautotroph

Uses light energy

80

Purple nonsulfur bacteria

Uses light energy

81

Parasite

Uses chemical reactions for energy

82

Fungus

Uses chemical reactions for energy

83

Cyanobacterium

Uses light energy