A&P 2 Blood

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1

What is the blood volume of an average-size adult male? _____________ liters An average adult
female? _____________ liters.

a. 5-6 Liters

b. 4-5 Liters

2

Describe the relationship between high blood cholesterol levels and cardiovascular diseases such as
hypertension, heart attacks, and strokes.

Cholesterol Levels:

  • LDL: Bad
    • Takes cholesterol from liver to the cells
  • HDL: Good
    • Collects extra cholesterol and from cells and vessels and deliver it back to the liver.

So high LDL leads to blockage in blood stream which can lead to cardiovascular disease.

High HDL less disease.

3

What determines whether blood is bright red or a dull brick-red?

The amount of oxygen content

-High oxygen = bright red

-Low oxygen = Dull brick-red

4

List functions of blood?

1. Transportation

  • Nutrients
  • Waste
  • Gasses
  • Hormones

2. Protection

  • Anti-Bodies
  • Blood Clotting

3. Regulation

  • Regulates Body Temp
5

List four classes of nutrients normally found in plasma?

  1. Glucose
  2. Amino Acids
  3. Lipids
  4. Carbohydrates
6

Name three ions normally found in plasma?

sodium, potassium, and calcium

7

Process of RBC production is called?

Erythropoiesis

8

The most abundant plasma protein is?

Albumin

9

The white blood cells that are important in producing antibodies are the __________?

Lymphocytes

10

Normally what percentage of the blood is red blood?

99.9%

or

45%

not to sure

11
  1. Use the key to identify the cell type(s) or blood elements that fit the following descriptive statements: Key: red blood cell; megakaryocyte; eosinophil; basophil; monocyte; neutrophil; lymphocyte; formed elements; plasma.
    1. most numerous leukocyte?
    2. granulocytes?
    3. also called an erythrocyte; anucleate formed element?
    4. actively phagocytic leukocytes?
    5. agranulocytes?
    6. ancestral cell of platelets?
    7. number rises during parasite infections?
    8. releases histamine; promotes inflammation?
    9. transports oxygen?
    10. primarily water, noncellular; the fluid matrix of blood?
    11. increases in number during prolonged infections?
    12. the five types of white blood cells?

Lymphocyte

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophil
  3. Red Blood Cell
  4. Neutrophil
  5. Lymphocytes and Monocyte
  6. Megakaryocyte
  7. Eosinophils
  8. Basophils
  9. Red Blood Cell
  10. Plasma
  11. Neutrophils
  12. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes
12

What is the average life span of a red blood cell? How does its anucleate condition affect this life span?

  • Avg lifespan = 120 days
  • Since it doesn't contain a nucleus it cant repair itself.
13

Correctly identify the blood pathologies described using the following keys:

key: anemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, polycythemia.

Pathology description:

abnormal increase in the number of WBCs?;

abnormal increase in the number of RBCs?;

condition of too few RBCs or of RBCs with hemoglobin deficiencies?;

abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs?.

1. Anemia

  • Condition of too few RBCs or of RBCs with hemoglobin deficiencies

2. Leukocytosis

  • abnormal increase in the number of WBCs

3. Leukopenia

  • abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs

4. Polycythemia

  • abnormal increase in the number of RBCs
14

What hormone acts as a stimulus for the process of RBC production? Which organ/gland produces this hormone?

-Erythropoietin

-Kidney

15

Why might patients with kidney disease suffer from anemia? How can such patients be treated?

-Kidney produces Erythropoetien which which stimulates RBC production and anemia is low RBC count

-Treatment:

  • Increasing Iron levels
  • Erythropoietin injection
  • Red Blood Cell Transfusions
  • Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplements
16

A person's blood type is determined by the presence or absence of specific molecules (proteins) located where?

-Surface of RBC

17

Bicarbonate, magnesium, chloride, and potassium ions are all electrolyte that make up which part of blood?

Plasma

18

Broadly speaking, why are hematologic studies of blood so important in the diagnosis of disease?

to determine the general level of health and the presence of pathological conditions

19

Body heat is generated by ……system and distributed …… system?

-Muscular system

-Cardiovascular

20

Define hematocrit?

% of total blood volume occupied by RBC

21

What is the chief difference between plasma and interstitial fluid?

concentration of dissolved oxygen and proteins

22

the percent of red blood cells in a blood sample is ….?

45%

23

List components of formed elements of the blood?

1. RBC

2. WBC

3. Platelets

24

If you had a high hematocrit, would you expect your hemoglobin determination to be high or low? Why?

-Increase in hematocrit = increase in Hemoglobin. Which would lead to more oxygen binding to hemoglobin

25

The major function of the most common plasma protein, albumin, is __________?

Regulation of Osmotic Pressure

26

Red blood cells are efficient oxygen transport cells. Which structural characteristics, is the major contributor to the significant oxygen-carrying capacity of a red blood cell?

It being biconcave

27

Which plasma protein is important in body defense?

Globulin

28

Blood cells that have no nucleus?

RBC

29

Each hemoglobin can transport ________ oxygen atoms?

4 oxygen atoms

30

Oxygen binds to the _______ portion of hemoglobin i.e. oxygen bind to which component of hemoglobin?

iron

31

A patient with low iron levels would experience which of the following symptoms?

-an increase in fatigue

32

The combination of plasma and formed elements is called……….?

whole blood

33

Predict the outcome of an overdose of the hormone erythropoietin?

The blood viscosity increases to levels that may induce heart attacks or strokes.

34

Serotonin is released by which cells of formed elements?

Platelets

35

What response would you expect after traveling to high altitude for two weeks?

  • The kidneys would secrete elevated amounts of erythropoietin.
36

A person with type A blood has _________ agglutinins in their plasma?

Type B

37
  1. A person with type A blood has _________ agglutinogen on the surface of the RBC?

Type A

38

Define whole blood?

Blood as its drawn from the body without separating its components

39

If a patient has pernicious anemia, the inability of the body to absorb vitamin B12, the patient __________?

Low RBC count:

reason: B12 is important in hemoglobin transcript.

40

Even though we refer to platelets as blood cells, they are not actual cells. Thus platelets are best described as……?

Fragments of cells

41

Andrew has blood type O negative. What type of blood can he receive from a donor? Why?

only O negative. Because he has anti A, B, and D antibodies.

42

The most numerous white blood cells in peripheral circulation are the________?

Neutrophil

43

Why can’t a person with Type A blood safely receive blood from a person with Type B blood?

The person with type A has Type B agglutinins (antibodies). His antibodies would attack type B RBC

44

By what mechanism Heparin prevents blood clotting i.e. how does heparin prevent blood clotting?

Two ways to say it

  • works by inactivating thrombin in the clotting process. This stops the formation of fibrin and so stops blood clots forming.
  • Heparin prevents blood clotting by inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fibrinogen. So if there is no prothrombin, then there will be no thrombin, and if there is no thrombin, then there will be no fibrin, because thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
45

An elevated neutrophil count would be indicative of ________?

A bacterial infection

46

Antihistamines counter the actions of which white blood cells? Hint: think of the cells that produce histamine. So antihistamine will affect that cell.

Basophils

47

Biliverdin and bilirubin are pigments that result from the breakdown of red blood cells. Biliverdin is ______ in color and bilirubin is ______ in color?

  • Biliverdin is Green
  • Bilirubin is Yellow
48

Which cell is the progenitor of platelets i.e. which cells give rise to plateletes?

Formation of platelets involves repeated mitoses of megakaryocytes without cytokinesis.

49

Which plasma protein is important in maintaining blood osmotic pressure?

Albumin

50

Why don’t platelets form plugs in undamaged vessels?

Only contact of platelets with exposed collagen fibers and von Willebrand factor causes them to be sticky and form plugs.

51

Platelets are formed from cells in the bone marrow called _________?

Megakaryocytes

52

Which formed element cells are formed from megakaryocytes?

Platelets

53

Which plasma protein is produced by B lymphatic cells?

Immunoglobin or Anti bodies

54

Which plasma protein is important in blood clot formation?

Fibrinogen

55

An oral heparin medication might be prescribed for a patient who?

is at risk for embolism (clots that spontaneously form and wedge in blood vessels).

56

Which plasma protein transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins?

Globulin

57

There are ~280 million Hb molecules in one RBC. A single Hb molecule carries ___ molecule(s) of O2, which means that a single RBC carries about ___ O2 molecules?

  • 4 O2
  • 1 Billion O2
58

In which organ are most plasma proteins synthesized?

Liver

59

List some common factor that increases risk of developing atherosclerosis?

The build-up of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls.

  • Diet
  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
60

What is the difference between serum and plasma?

Serum is the same as plasma but without fibrinogen

61

Why is venipuncture a common technique for obtaining a blood sample?

  • Superficial veins are easy to locate
  • Walls of the vain are thinner than arteries
  • Blood pressure in veins is relatively low.
62

What is the primary difference between plasma and interstitial fluid?

  • Interstital fluid is located outside the blood vessels
  • where plasma is located withing the blood vessels
63

Which characteristics of blood contribute to its high viscosity?

Due to the presence of formed elements

64

RBC is mainly consisting of which protein?

Hemoglobin

65

Which of the phases of hemostasis occurs first?

  1. Vascular Phase (Blood Vessel Spasm)
  2. Platelet Phase (Plug Formation)
  3. Coagulation Phase (Formation of Blood Clot)
66

List vitamins, mineral, proteins and enzymes required for the formation of a blood clot?

  • Vitamin: Vitamin K
  • Mineral: Ca2+
  • Enzyme: Thrombin
  • Protein: Fibrin
67

Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease where the tissue becomes fibrotic. How could this disease impact the blood?

There would be a decrease in plasma protein production. Thus:

  • A.It can cause a decrease in the ability of blood to clot due to decreased production of fibrinogen.
  • It can decrease the production of immunoglobulins and decrease the ability to fight infection.
  • It can decrease the osmotic pressure of the blood.
68

Why is it important that when iron binds to oxygen that this is a temporary and reversible interaction?

because the oxygen needs to dissociate into tissues

69

Following surgery for stomach cancer, Joe has been diagnosed with pernicious anemia. Which of the following is most likely the cause of this problem?

He may not be absorbing vitamin B12 from his diet since the operation because of less intrinsic factor

70

What is the final step in the formation of a blood clot?

Blood Coagulation = Formation of a blood clot

Final Step: Fibrinogen--> Fibrin

71

What accounts for males’ hematocrit (~46) being higher than females hematocrit(~42) i.e. why male have higher count of RBC compared to female ?

  • androgens stimulate RBC production
  • Larger muscles.
72

What is the nature of and purpose of surface antigens on RBCs?

Integral membrane glycoproteins or glycolipids/ substances your immune system recognizes as “normal”

73

A person with type AB blood have which antigens on the surface of their RBC?

Type A and Type B antigens

74

Which type of WBC is found in greatest numbers in an infected cut (injured and infected part of the body)?

Neutaphils

75

Monocytes transform into ____ in tissues, where they ____?

  • Macrophages
  • Release chemicals that attract neutrophils
76

How long is the average lifespan of a red blood cell?

120 days

77

What is the role of vitamin K in blood clotting?

Essential for forming prothrombin which permits proper clotting of blood.

78

Which vitamin is essential for synthesis of prothrombin?

Vitamin K

79

Sam has an infestation of large parasitic worms. Which WBC release cytotoxic enzymes from their granules?

Eosinophils

80

If Derek has surface antigen B and D on his RBCs, what blood type does he have?

Type: B+

81

More than 95 percent of the protein found in a red blood cell is…..?

Hemoglobin

82
  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding the mechanism controlling movement of white blood cells into damaged areas?
    1. White blood cells exit the capillary and move through the tissue spaces with cytoplasmic extensions by following a trail of chemicals produced by other white blood cells.
    2. Capillaries break open, flooding a damaged area with white blood cells.
    3. The damaged tissues synthesize their own white blood cells.
  1. White blood cells exit the capillary and move through the tissue spaces with cytoplasmic extensions by following a trail of chemicals produced by other white blood cells.
83

Discuss the effect of each of the following factors on RBC count. Consult an appropriate reference as necessary, and explain your reasoning.

  1. long-term effect of athletic training (for example, running 4 to 5 miles per day over a period of six to nine months)?
  2. permanent move from sea level to a high-altitude area?

1. High RBC count (due to body needing more oxygen ie. Large muscles)

2. High RBC count (due to low oxygen levels)

84

Why is it important that when iron binds to oxygen that this is a temporary and reversible interaction?

because the oxygen needs to dissociate into tissues

85
  1. What is an anticoagulant?. Name body’s natural anticoagulant?
  • To not allow blood clotting.
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant
86

What name is given to the process of RBC production?

Eurythropoesis

87

Where Red blood cells are formed i.e. productions of RBC occur where?

Red Bone Marrow

88

Where agranular leukocytes are formed?

Red Bone Marrow

89
  1. Use the key to identify the cell type(s) or blood elements that fit the following descriptive statements: Key: red blood cell; megakaryocyte; eosinophil; basophil; monocyte; neutrophil; lymphocyte; formed elements; plasma.
    1. most numerous leukocyte?
    2. granulocytes?
    3. also called an erythrocyte; anucleate formed element?
    4. actively phagocytic leukocytes?
    5. agranulocytes?
    6. ancestral cell of platelets?
    7. number rises during parasite infections?
    8. releases histamine; promotes inflammation?
    9. transports oxygen?
    10. primarily water, noncellular; the fluid matrix of blood?
    11. increases in number during prolonged infections?
    12. the five types of white blood cells?

Lymphocyte

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophil
  3. Red Blood Cell
  4. Neutrophil
  5. Lymphocytes and Monocyte
  6. Megakaryocyte
  7. Eosinophils
  8. Basophils
  9. Red Blood Cell
  10. Plasma
  11. Neutrophils
  12. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes
90
  1. What blood type is theoretically considered the universal donor? Why?

Type O- (O Negative) because it doesn't contain any surface antigens on it

91

The most numerous plasma proteins are?

Albumin

92

Explain why an Rh-negative person does not have a transfusion reaction on the first exposure to Rhpositive blood but does have a reaction on the second exposure?

There are no preformed anti-Rh antibodies in his/her blood. After the first exposure to Rh positive blood, the immune system reacts and the starts making antibodies.

93
  1. Use the key to identify the cell type(s) or blood elements that fit the following descriptive statements: Key: red blood cell; megakaryocyte; eosinophil; basophil; monocyte; neutrophil; lymphocyte; formed elements; plasma.
    1. most numerous leukocyte?
    2. granulocytes?
    3. also called an erythrocyte; anucleate formed element?
    4. actively phagocytic leukocytes?
    5. agranulocytes?
    6. ancestral cell of platelets?
    7. number rises during parasite infections?
    8. releases histamine; promotes inflammation?
    9. transports oxygen?
    10. primarily water, noncellular; the fluid matrix of blood?
    11. increases in number during prolonged infections?
    12. the five types of white blood cells?

Lymphocyte

  1. Neutrophil
  2. Neutrophil, Eosinophil and Basophil
  3. Red Blood Cell
  4. Monocyte
  5. Lymphocytes and Monocyte
  6. Megakaryocyte
  7. Eosinophils
  8. Basophils
  9. Red Blood Cell
  10. Plasma
  11. Neutrophils
  12. Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes
94
card image
  1. Assume the blood of two patients has been typed for ABO blood type. On the basis of these results (figure bellow), Mr. Adams has type _______ blood, and Mr. Calhoon has type_______ blood.

-Mr. Adams Type O

-Mr. Calhoon Type A