Exam 3 Flashcards


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1

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located

In the walls of the tract organs

2

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to

Collect absorb nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

3

The chemical and mechanical process of food breakdown are called

Digestion

4

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids carbohydrates and proteins they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzyme split these molecules. This series of reactions is called

Chemical digestion

5

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that holds the digestive tract in place are called

Mesenteries

6

From the esophagus to the anal Canal the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers arrange them in order from the lumen

Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

7

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier

Rennin

8

What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing

Enamel

9

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the

Lamina propria

10

Which hormone causes an increase output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile

Cholecystokinin cck

11

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile

Bile contains enzymes for digestion

12

The observative effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplished this task

Plicae circulares and intestinal villi

13

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth

There are 20 primary teeth and by 24 months of age most children have all 20

14

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth

There are 32 permanent teeth and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge

15

Which of the following is not true of saliva

Contains enzymes that begin to the breakdown of protein

16

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells

Serous cells and mucosa cell

17

The solutes contained in saliva include

Electrolytes ,digestive enzymes, mucin, lysosome, wastes, and IGA

18

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach

Initiates protein digestion and denatures protein

19

Chyme is created in the

Stomach

20

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach

Parietal cells

21

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin, are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products

Enteroendocrine cells

22

There are three phases of gastric secretion the cephalic phase occurs

Before food enters the stomach and is triggered by Aroma, sight, or thought

23

Peristaltic waves are

Waves of muscular contractions that Propel contents from one point to the other

24

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. He's secretions are stimulated by the presence of

Protein and peptide fragments

25

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the

Chief cells of the stomach

26

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal

Amylase

27

The ducks that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the

Hepatopancreatic ampulla

28

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called

Hydrolysis

29

Short chain triglycerides found in food such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by specific enzyme and preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible

Lipase

30

Parietal cells of the stomach produce

Hydrochloric acid

31

Hepatocytes do not

Produce digestive enzymes

32

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion

Enterogastric

33

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed

B12

34

Chief cells

Are found in the basal region of gastric glands

35

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the processes of

Catabolism

36

The _____ contains lobules with the sinusoids ( lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure

Liver

37

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the

Serosa

38

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the

Ileum

39

The dental formula for an adult is 2 - 1 - 2 - 3. What does the one stand for

Canine tooth

40

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged

Lipids

41

_____ is locally regulated in the blood by active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor

Calcium

42

Important peritoneal Folds do not include the

Round ligament

43

The lamina propria is composed of

Loose connective tissue

44

_____ is (are) not important as a stimulus In the gastric phase of gastric secretion

Carbohydrates

45

Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the

Cystic duct

46

The function of the goblet cells is to

Produce mucus that protects part of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

47

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria

Synthesize vitamin K and B complex vitamins

48

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by

The vagus nerve and enteric plexus

49

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds

Fungiform and circumvallate

50

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor

Parietal cells

51

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins

Trypsin

52

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body

Tongue

53

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol emulsification agents and phospholipids is

Bile

54

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels lymphatic nodes and a rich supply of elastic fibers is

Submucosa

55

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine

It is longer than the small intestine

56

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBC

Intrinsic factor

57

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal Villa

Active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

58

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion

Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth

59

Select the correct statement about digestive processes

Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric Mobility via the enterogastric reflux

60

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves

Cck, and intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

61

Paneth cells

Secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

62

Select the correct statement about absorption

If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated

63

Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption

Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly in the duodenum

64

You have just eaten french fries buttered toast ice cream and whole milk which of the following glands would be active in helping you digest this food

The pancreas

65

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur

Bio would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum

66

The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from the

Endoderm

67

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination it is found that the spinter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open rattly because of the babies loss of gastric juice his blood probably indicates

Alkalosis

68

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include

Secretin

69

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation

Inferior vena cava

70

There are 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine our Ig___ antibody meditated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems

A

71

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the

Loop of henle

72

Urine passes through the

Pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

73

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle

A Vasa recta

74

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to

Increase in the production of ADH

75

The urinary bladder is composed of

Transitional epithelium

76

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin

By a decrease in the blood pressure

77

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system

Eliminate solid, undigested waste and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salt, and heat

78

Which gland sits atop each kidney

Adrenal

79

The _____ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney

Archate

80

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it

Is drained by an efferent arterial

81

The descending limb of the loop of henle

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

82

Select the correct statement about the ureters

The ureters are capable of Peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract

83

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it

Stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them into their normal position

84

The renal corpuscle is made up of

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

85

The function and structural unit of the kidney is the

Nephron

86

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for

Regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

87

The chief Force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

88

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters

They are Tri layered mucosa muscularis and adventitia

89

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time

90

Which of the following acts as the trigger for initiation of micturition (voiding)

The stretching of the bladder wall

91

The filtration membrane includes all except

Renal fascia

92

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is

Osmosis

93

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is

Hormonal a controlled in the distal tubules segments

94

The macula densa cells respond to

Changes in solute content of the filtrate

95

which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule

Creatinine

96

The fluid in the glomerular capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of

Plasma protein

97

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it

Inhibits the release of ADH

98

The function of angiotensin II is to

Constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

99

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone ADH by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is

Diabetes insipidus

100

An important characteristic of urine is it specific gravity or density which is

1.001 through 1.035

101

Select the correct statement about nephrons

The parietal layer of glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium

102

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal

Net filtration would decrease

103

Which of the following is not a part of just the juxtaglomerular apparatus

Podocytes cell

104

Tubular reabsorption

Viactiv mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and or chemical gradient

105

Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or in completely reabsorbed from the Nephron

They are extremely complex molecules

106

Re-absorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

Secondary active transport

107

Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of henle

Form a large volume of very diluted urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

108

Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because

The placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from the fetal blood

109

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy

110

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

111

If the TM for a particular amino acid is 120 mg / 100 mg in the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg / 100 mg the amino acid will

Appear in the urine

112

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is 0 what does that mean

Normally all of the glucose is reabsorbed

113

Excretion of dilute urine requires

Impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

114

Which of the choices below is not a method of which cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH

By secreting sodium ions

115

In the ascending limb of the loop of henle the

Fixed segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

116

Select the correct statement about urinary system development

Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges

117

Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion

Ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

118

Which statement is correct

Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled

119

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

Help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

120

Which of the choices below is the salt level monitoring part of the Nephron

Macula densa

121

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption

ADH

122

Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate controlled

Electrolyte levels

123

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of the electrolyte reabsorption and secretion

Angiotensin II and Aldosterone

124

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate

Macula densa cells

125

The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions

Sodium ions

126

The term hypotonic hydration refers to

A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water

127

Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusual low levels of plasma proteins this problem is often characterized by

Tissue edema

128

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion

Aldosterone

129

Arterial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to

Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

130

Respiratory acidosis can occur

When a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

131

Which of the following two organ functions as the most important physiological buffer systems

The lungs and the kidneys

132

Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body

Anabolism of proteins

133

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body

Aldosterone

134

The fluid link between the external and internal environment is

Plasma

135

Newborn infants have a relatively higher _____ content in their ECF then do adults

Sodium

136

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most _____ is found in the intercellular fluid

Potassium

137

Which of the following describes the disruption of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the bodily fluids

138

Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their

Inefficient kidneys

139

the single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion

Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

140

The term alkaline Reserve is used to describe the ______ buffer system

Bicarbonate

141

Falling blood pH and Rising parietal pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates

Respiratory acidosis

142

The movement of fluids between cellular compartments

Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces

143

What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention

Atrial natriuretic peptide

144

Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood

Diet

145

Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system

Nucleic acid

146

Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except

Glucose

147

Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts

Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts

148

Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys

Antidiuretic hormone

149

The maintenance of proper pH of the blood fluids may be the result of

Be the result of the control of respiratory ventilation

150

Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance

Excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion

151

The regulation of sodium

Is linked to blood pressure

152

Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance

Kidney tubules cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion

153

Blood analysis indicates a low ph and the patient is breathing rapidly giving your knowledge of acid-base balance which of the following is most likely

Metabolic acidosis

154

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value what is likely the diagnosis

Metabolic alkalosis

155

One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is

A rise in plasma osmolality

156

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fried some pickled eggs and some cheese how will consuming this much salt affect her physiology

There will be a temporary increase in blood volume

157

The most important Force causing net water flow across capillary walls is

Hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood

158

Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes

Amount of body fat

159

The regulation of potassium balance

Involves aldosterone induce secretion of potassium