Exam 4

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by ashleytillmon
71 views
updated 3 years ago by ashleytillmon
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Ventilation is an example of

  • bulk flow.
2

Alveolar pressure at the end of inspiration is ________ alveolar pressure at the end of expiration.

equal to

3

Which of the following muscles are used for quiet expiration?

None of the above

4

Velocity of air flow is greatest in the

trachea.

5

The ciliated epithelium of the trachea and bronchi

helps move mucus to the pharynx

6

On its way into the lungs, air passes through

pharynx → larynx → trachea.

7

Normal, quiet breathing is called

eupnea.

8

Which of the following is a restrictive lung disease?

  • fibrotic lung disease
9

The diffusion rate for the exchange of CO2 and O2 from alveoli to blood is inversely proportional to which of the following?

membrane thickness

10

The movement of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood is due to

simple diffusion.

11

During hypoventilation, PCO2 increases in plasma so pH

decreases.

12

In an exercising person, increased carbon dioxide production by cells will have what effect on oxygen release from hemoglobin?

It enhances release.

13

If plasma pH in capillaries goes from 7.40 to 7.48, hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen will __________ so __________ oxygen will be released to the tissue.

increase; less

14

As the PO2 of plasma increases, the amount of dissolved oxygen

increases.

15

Bicarbonate (HCO3) is the most important extracellular buffer in the body.

true

16

The chemical control of ventilation is due primarily to

PCO2.

17

A saturated hemoglobin molecule is bound by _____ oxygen molecule(s).

four

18

The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve shifts to the right in response to

increased H+ concentration.

19

Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the chemical reaction of

carbon dioxide with water.

20

Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid and aortic arteries sense changes in the

  • PO2
  • pH
  • PCO2
  • None of the above.
  • All of the above.
21

Most of the carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as

  • bicarbonate ions.
22

Which of the following is NOT a filtration barrier that solutes in the plasma must pass through to enter the lumen of Bowman’s capsule?

  • proximal tubule endothelium
23

The kidneys synthesize and release which of the following protein(s)?

  • erythropoietin
  • renin
  • A and B
24

What is the process called that removes selected molecules from the blood and adds them to the filtrate?

secretion

25

Which of the following opposes glomerular filtration?

  • fluid pressure in Bowman’s capsule
  • colloid osmotic pressure of plasma
  • A and C
26

What happens to GFR when the afferent arteriole dilates?

It increases.

27

With normal kidney function, which of the following is/are present in plasma but not in filtrate?

  • proteins
  • blood cells
  • B and C
28

Which of the following cells release paracrines that affect afferent arteriole diameter?

macula densa cells

29

The micturition reflex involves

  • .
  • parasympathetic neurons.
  • somatic motor neurons.
  • B and C.
30

‘Secretion’ in a nephron always refers to transport of

  • a solute into the nephron lumen.
31

Name an ion that is commonly linked to secondary active transport during reabsorption in a neuron.

Na+

32

What likely occurs if the extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolarity increases as a result of salt intake?

  • Water moves out of the cells and they shrink.
33

Which of the following would NOT be a physiological response to a decrease in blood volume?

  • inhibition of vasopressin release
34

‘Insensible’ water loss refers to

  • evaporative water loss from the lungs and skin.
35

In the presence of vasopressin, the apical membrane of a collecting duct cell has ________ water pores.

more

36

Which of the following factors induce vasopressin release from the posterior pituitary?

  • increased osmolarity
  • decreased blood pressure
  • A and B
37

The apical surface of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is NOT permeable to water.

true

38

Where is the final osmolarity of urine established?

collecting duct

39

Which of the following stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex?

  • decrease in blood pressure
  • elevated plasma K+ (hyperkalemia)
  • increased renin
  • A and B
  • All of the above
40

An 83-year-old woman with severe orthostatic hypotension due to loss of cardiovascular control center function is given Florinef (fludrocortisone acetate), a potent aldosterone agonist. In addition to monitoring her blood pressure, what other parameter should also be monitored?

serum K+

41

Which of the following is/are target tissues for angiotensin II (ANG II)?

  • arterioles
  • cardiovascular control center
  • hypothalamus
  • proximal tubule
  • All of the above
42

Eating salty dry food without drinking will cause a(n) ________ in ECF osmolarity and ________ in the volume of the body fluids (before any compensatory response).

increase; no change

43

The vasa recta

  • are a series of straight capillaries in the medulla.
  • lie parallel to the loop of Henle.
  • .
  • A and B
44

Which of the following factors affect the release of atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP)?

  • increased blood volume
45

The term “sexually dimorphic” means ____________.

  • the anatomical features of each sex are different
46

Human gametes contain ______ chromosomes.

23

47

The male gonad is the _______.

testis

48

At the end of mitosis, developing sperm cells are called _______.

spermatocytes

49

In males, LH influences _______.

testosterone production

50
  • What do the Wolffian ducts become in males?

epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle

51
  • Which of the following becomes the Fallopian tube during sexual differentiation?

Müllerian duct

52

Which of the following statements is true about bile salts?

They facilitate fat digestion.

53
  • After absorbed nutrients have entered the bloodstream, what is the first location that the blood reaches after leaving the digestive system?

liver

54

Where are the enzymes responsible for digestion in the small intestine produced?

pancreas

55

Which of the following statements is true of bacteria?

Bacteria are cells.

56

An enzyme that will digest proteins into peptides is _______.

trypsin

57

All of these are enzymes digest protein except:

a. lipase

58

By the time the filtrate reaches this, the glucose is usually completely reabsorbed

a. the end of the proximal tubule

59
  • A decrease in systemic blood pressure results in dilation of the afferent arterioles which prevents a decrease in renal blood flow and filtration pressure.

true

60

This hormone secreted by the kidney triggers a cascade that regulates blood Na+ and blood pressure

c. renin

61

This effect is caused by increased aldosterone levels:

a. increased reabsorption of Na+

62

Diuretics affect the urine in this manner

b. increase the urine flow

63

Water leaves the nephron by this mechanism

c. osmosis

64
  • This condition reduces filtration pressure in the glomerulus:

b. constriction of the afferent arterioles

65

This is a function of FSH in the male:

d. initiate spermatogenesis

66

Testosterone has all of these effects on males except

d. growth of corpus luteum

67

Air moves into the lungs because

the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure

68

In quiet breathing,

inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.

69

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the

upper respiratory tract.

70

The carotid and aortic bodies contain specialized ________ cells, which can increase ventilation in response to changes in PO2, PCO2, or pH.

glomus

71

Which of the following is NOT true about angiotensin II?

activates parasympathetic output

72

Approximately how much plasma moves through the kidneys of an adult during a 24-hour period?

180 L

73

When a body is dehydrated, water in the urinary bladder

will still be expelled from the body in the urine.

74

Put the following in order from where urine is produced to where it exits the body:

  1. Urethra
  2. Urinary bladder
  3. Nephron
  4. Ureter

3, 4, 2, 1

75

The section of the GI tract where chyme is processed to remove water and electrolytes, leaving waste products of digestion.

colon

76

Mechanical digestion refers to

the effects of chewing, churning, and segmentation.

77

Digestion is essentially completed in the

small intestine.

78

After processing in the stomach, the gastric contents are referred to as

chyme.

79

What hormone dominates the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?

progeterone

80

The average length of the menstrual cycle is

28 days.

81

What causes normal expiration?

Elastic recoil of lungs and the thoracic cage

82

Which of the following would make the oxygen-hemoglobin curve shift right?

increased H+ concentration

83

The ________ consist(s) of light, spongy tissue whose volume is occupied mostly by air-filled spaces.

lungs

84

The term that is simply defined as breathing is ________.

ventilation

85

High carbon dioxide concentration in body fluids is called

hypercapnia.

86

Secretion into the nephron is a/an ________ process because the direction is ________ the concentration gradient.

active; against

87

The primary route for water loss from the body is the ________ system.

urinary

88

The hormone that directly controls water excretion by the kidneys is

ADH.

89

A glomerulus is

a "knot" of capillaries that lies within the Bowman's capsule.

90

Why is sodium actively reabsorbed in the nephron?

to increase passive reabsorption of water

91

During defecation,

stretch receptors in the rectal wall activate parasympathetic centers in the spinal cord.

92

Digestive reflexes originating in the _________ are called long reflexes.

central nervous system

93

Fat digestion is carried out by the enzyme ________, which breaks down triglyceride into ________.

lipase, two fatty acids and one monoglyceride

94

Bicarbonate secretion

neutralizes acid entering from the stomach into the duodenum.

95

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is

progesterone.

96

What word or phrase means "the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs"?

ventilation

97

An increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will

increase the rate of breathing.

98

Contraction of the muscles of inspiration most directly produces what change?

An increase in thoracic volume

99

Which of the following characteristics makes hemoglobin's structure such a good match for its function as an oxygen carrier?

Each hemoglobin molecule can bind four oxygen molecules.

100

The kidneys function to produce hormones, excrete wastes, regulate blood pressure, and maintain ion balance. Which of the following is another function of the kidneys?

regulate osmolarity

101

In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions would cause an increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood

102

An obstruction in a glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the

efferent arteriole.

103

movement from the peritubular capillaries (blood) to the nephron lumen

secretion

104

movement from the nephron lumen to the external environment

excretion

105

movement from the glomerulus to the nephron lumen

filtration

106

movement from the nephron lumen to the blood

reabsorption

107

Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in a person suffering from type I diabetes mellitus?

glucosuria

ketoacidosis

thirst and polydipsia

hyperglycemia

All of these answers are correct.

108

When eaten, nearly 90% of our dietary calories from fat are in the form of

triglycerides.

109

Salivation is controlled almost entirely by the nervous system. Which of the following stimuli would inhibit salivation?

fear

110

The enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides is

amylase.

111

Functions of the large intestine include

resorption of water and compaction of feces.

112

What do the Wolffian ducts become in males?

epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicle

113

Sperm cannot fertilize an egg until they

undergo capacitation

114

The female gonad is called a(n)

ovary.

115

A zygote with the genotype YO will

die

116

The product of the SRY gene is

testis-determining factor.

117

Human gametes contain ______ chromosomes.

23

118

Type II alveolar cells

secrete a chemical known as surfactant.

119

Oxygen is carried in the blood in two ways. Most of it is bound to hemoglobin while the remainder is carried in what form?

dissolved in the plasma

120

Which of the following diseases results in a thickened alveolar membrane and decreased lung compliance?

fibrotic lung disease

121

When alveolar pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, air flows into the lungs.

false

122

A powerful bronchoconstrictor released by mast cells is

histamine.

123

The primary function of the proximal tubule is

reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, and water.

124

The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the

renal corpuscle.

125

An obstruction in a glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the

efferent arteriole.

126

The hormone that directly controls water excretion by the kidneys is

ADH

127

Functions of the kidneys include all but one of the following. Identify the exception.

regulation of blood protein levels

128

Which of the following is the sequence of layers from the lumen to the outer wall of the digestive tract?

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

129

________ are short segments of intestine that alternately contract and relax. They are responsible for ________.

Segmental contractions, mixing

130

Which of the following events does NOT occur when you swallow?

The upper esophageal sphincter closes.

131

Which function(s) is/are NOT continuously regulated by the GI tract?

absorption

132

After processing in the stomach, the gastric contents are referred to as

chyme.

133

What is the greatest difference in gametogenesis between males and females?

the number of gametes produced from each germ cell

134

The product of the SRY gene is

testis-determining factor.

135

Gametes are produced by

gonads.

136

Alveolar ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the alveoli.

137

Which of the following causes the destruction of alveoli?

emphysema

138

Active expiration is produced by contraction of

abdominal muscles and internal intercostals.

139

Which is NOT considered to be a primary function of the respiratory system?

regulation of water balance

140

In normal kidneys, blood cells and plasma proteins are

not filtered.

141

In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions would cause an increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood

142

Put the following steps of fat digestion and absorption in order:

Chylomicrons are released into lymphatic system.

Bile salts coat fat droplets.

Monoglycerides and fatty acids move out of micelles.

Pancreatic lipase and colipase break down fats.

Cholesterol is transported into cells.

Chylomicrons are formed.

Bile salts coat fat droplets.

Cholesterol is transported into cells.

Chylomicrons are formed.

Chylomicrons are released into lymphatic system.

Monoglycerides and fatty acids move out of micelles.

Pancreatic lipase and colipase break down fats

143

Which cell is responsible for the production of surfactant?

type II alveolar cells.

144

Thirst is

controlled by centers in the hypothalamus, triggered by increased osmolarity, and relieved only when plasma osmolarity is decreased

145

Dan has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result, you would expect to observe

elevated ADH levels.

146

After it is formed, urine is temporarily stored in the

urinary bladder.

147

Which of the following is NOT true about angiotensin II?

activates parasympathetic output

148

Digestive reflexes originating in the _________ are called long reflexes.

central nervous system

149

During the fasting state, the energy stores of the ________ become the major source of glucose for the whole body.

liver

150

Chief cells of the stomach secrete

pepsinogen.

151

What hormone dominates the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?

progeterone

152

Surfactant

helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing.

153

The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the

renal corpuscle.

154

The primary function of the proximal tubule is

reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, and water.

155

Which of the following events does NOT occur when you swallow?

The upper esophageal sphincter closes.

156

Diarrhea often accompanies intestinal infections. Why?

Bacterial toxins enhance the secretion of KCl from the cells, which causes water movement into the intestine.

157

In the digestive system, HCl is released by ________, whereas HCO3 - is secreted primarily from the ________.

parietal cells of the stomach, pancreas

158

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is

progesterone.

159

Pulmonary ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the lungs.

160

Oxygen moving from the alveoli into the blood does so by _______.

diffusion

161

The three filtration barriers that substances must pass through when leaving the blood and entering the tubule lumen are the glomerular capillary endothelium, the filtration slits of the podocytes, and which other structure?

basal lamina

162

Mechanical digestion refers to

the effects of chewing, churning, and segmentation.

163

Meiosis of one cell results in production of

four gametes if male, one if female.

164

During the menses,

the endometrium sloughs

165

The ease with which the lungs stretch in response to changes in pressure is termed

compliance.

166

Joe is playing in an intramural football game when he is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin, and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe probably is suffering from

a pneumothorax.

167

What causes normal expiration?

Elastic recoil of lungs and the thoracic cage

168

Which is NOT considered to be a primary function of the respiratory system?

regulation of water balance

169

Type II alveolar cells

secrete a chemical known as surfactant.

170

Differentiation of the male external genitalia is controlled primarily by _________.

DHT

171

Which cell is responsible for the production of surfactant?

type II alveolar cells.

172

What is the "migrating motor complex"?

a pattern of slow contractions sweeping along the GI tract

173

The force for glomerular filtration is the

blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries.

174

Which of the following occurs during quiet expiration?

The thoracic volume decreases.