Chapter 15: The Endocrine System

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1

The endocrine system works with which system?

nervous system

2

Does the endocrine system use chemical or electrical messages?

chemical

3

The endocrine system includes

ductless glands, organs, and hormones

4

ductless glands

produce hormones in the body

5

organs

have other functions but also produce hormones

6

Endocrine glands in the brain

hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland

7

Endocrine glands elsewhere in the body

adrenal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland

8

What is a hormone?

a molecule made in a cell or a group of cells that is transported through the blood to a target cell

9

What must hormones have at their target cells?

receptors

10

Hormone-receptor binding triggers what?

biochemical changes in target cells by either second messenger systems or transcription factors

11

second messenger systems

hormone binds to a receptor outside of the cell and trigger activity inside of the cell

12

transcription factors

hormone enters the cell, binds to its receptor, then triggers transcription of dna, which is later transcribed to form new proteins

13

What turns on glands and stimulates hormone production?

stimulus

14

3 types of stimuli in hormones

humoral, neural, hormonal

15

humoral stimulation

hormones are released in response to changes in blood chemistry

16

neural stimulation

NT release at gland stimulates hormone release

17

hormonal stimulation

hormones from one endocrine gland stimulate the release of hormones from another gland

18

For the hormone to turn off there must be what?

mechanism to stop signal activity

19

Hormones can be degraded in the blood by?

enzymes

20

Are hormones released in low or high concentrations?

low

21

Hormone concentrations have to be regulated because target cells are ____________

sensitive

22

What regulates hormone concentrations?

negative feedback loops

23

Hormones are classified based on?

chemical composition

24

Most hormones like insulin and growth hormones are made up of?

amino acids

25

Hormones such ad testosterone and cortisol are made up of?

steroids

26

Few hormones like NE, epinephrine, and thyroid hormone are made up of?

amines

27

Examples of nonpolar hormones

steroids, thyroid hormone

28

How are nonpolar hormones released into the bloodstream?

diffuse across the cell membrane

29

How do nonpolar hormones travel through the bloodstream?

use carrier proteins to deliver them to target cells

30

What is the lifespan of a nonpolar hormone in the bloodstream?

hours long

31

What is the site of action in a nonpolar hormone?

the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of the target cell

32

Where are the receptors of nonpolar hormones found?

inside the cell cytoplasm (steroids) or nucleus (thyroid)

33

What type of response is initiated by nonpolar hormones?

transcription factors

34

Examples of polar hormones

all amino acid based hormones and all amines (except thyroid)

35

How are polar hormones released into the bloodstream?

exocytosis (bulk discharge from vesicle)

36

How do polar hormones travel in the bloodstream?

dissolve in the bloodstream and arrive at the target cell unaided

37

What is the life span of a polar hormone?

short (sec-mins)

38

What is the site of action of polar hormones?

outside of the cell membrane

39

Receptors of polar hormones are found where?

receptors are founf outside of the membrane

40

What response is initiated by polar hormones?

second messengers

41

The hypothalamus produces hormones that are released to control the?

pituitary gland

42

Hormones released by the pituitary gland travel to?

other endocrines glands to stimulate them to release their own hormones

43

Overproduction of growth hormone leads to

gigantism in children, acromeagly in adults

44

underproduction of growth hormone leads to

dwarfism in children

45

The hypothalamus produces GHRH or GHIH which does what to the pituitary gland?

inhibits or promotes the release of GH

46

The hypothalamus produces thyroid releasing hormone (TRH)which does what to the pituitary gland?

stimulates the release of TRH

47

The thyroid hormone stimulates all body cells to increase what?

glucose use

48

Overproduction of TH can lead to

Grave's disease

49

Underproduction of TH can lead to

goiter or cretinism