Microbiology 205 Power Point notes

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Microbiology
Chapter 17
Power Point notes Fall 2012
updated 9 years ago by jenkarmata
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College: Second year
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1

-Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity-

The dual nature of Adaptive immunity consists of...

T&B cells develop from stem cells in red bone marrow.

2

-Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity-

Humoral immunity:

* Due to anibodies

* B cells mature in the bone marrow
-Chickens; bursa of fabricius

3

-Dual Nature of Adaptive Immunity-

Cellular immunity:

* Due to Tcells

*T cells mature in the thymus

4

Where do T cells mature?

Thymus

5

Where do B cells mature?

In bone marrow

6

-Nature of Antigens-

Antigen (Ag):

a substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells.

7

-Nature of Antigens-

Hapten:

Antigen is combined w/carrier molecules.

8

-The Nature of Antibodies-

Globular proteins called-

immunoglobulins

9

-The Nature of Antibodies-

The number of _____-________ determines _______

antigen-binding sites / valence

10

-IgG Antibodies-

IgG Ab:

* Monomer
* 80% of serum antibodies
* Cross placenta
* Enhance phagocytosis; neutralize toxins & viruses; protect fetus & newborn

11

-IgM Antibodies-

IgM Ab:

* Pentamer
* Agglutinate microbes; first Ab produced in response to infection.

12

-IgA Antibodies-

IgA Ab:

* Dimer
* In secretions
* Mucosal protection

13

-IgD Antibodies-

IgD Ab:

* Monomer
* On B cells, inititate immune response

14

-IgE Antibodies-

IgE Ab:

* Monomer
* On mast cells, on basophils, and in blood
* Allergic reactions; lysis of parasitic worms

15

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~
*
DIMER-

IgA Ab

*

16

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~

PENTAMER & Agglutinates microbes; first Ab produced in response to infection.

IgM Ab

17

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~

CROSSES PLACENTA & neutralized toxins & viruses; protects fetus & newborn.

IgG Ab

18

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~

Is IN SECRECTIONS & FUNCTIONS IN MUCOSAL PROTECTION

IgA Ab

19

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~

MONOMER

IgG, IgD, IgE Ab's

20

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~
*
On mast cells, basophils & in blood?

IgE Ab

*

21

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~

On B cells, initiate immune response

IgD Ab

22

~Select the correct Antibody molecule (IgG, IgM, etc)~

Allergic reactions; lysis of parasitic worms

IgE Ab

23

-Activation of B cells-

MHC stands for?

Major histocompatibility complex

24

-Activation of B cells-

Where is MHC expressed?

mammalian cells

25

-Activation of B cells-

T-dependent antigens:

* Ag presented w/(self) MHC to TH(H-subscript) cells

26

-Activation of B cells-

T-dependent antigens:

*TH(H=subscript) cell produces cytokines that activate the B cell

27

-Activation of B cells-

B cells differentiate into:

* Antibody-producing PLASMA CELLS & MEMORY CELLS

28

-Activation of B cells-

Clonal deletion:

eliminates harmful B cells

29

-Antigen-Antibody Binding-

1. Agglutination
2. Opsonization
3. Activation of complement
4. Antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity
5. Neutralization

30

WHAT DO THESE REPRESENT?

1. Agglutination
2. Opsonization
3. Activation of complement
4. Antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity
5. Neutralization

-Antigen-Antibody Binding-

31

-T Cells & Cellular Immunity-

T cells mature in the

thymus

32

-T Cells & Cellular Immunity-

Thymic selection eliminates many

immature T cells

33

-T Cells & Cellular Immunity-

T cells respond to Ag by

T-cell receptors (TCRs)

34

What does TCR stand for?

T-cell receptors

35

-T Cells & Cellular Immunity-

T cells require

antigen-presenting cells (APCs)

36

What does APC stand for?

antigen-presenting cells

37

-T Cells & Cellular Immunity-

Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through:

* M (MICROFOLD)CELLS over
* PEYER'S PATCHES, which contain APCs

38

-T Helper Cells-

CD4+ or TH(H=subscript) cells

TCRs recognize Ags & MHCII on APC

39

-T Helper Cells-

TH(h=subscript) cells produce cytokines & differentiate into:

1. TH1 cells
2. TH2 cells
3. TH17 cells
4. MEMORY CELLS

40

-T Helper Cells-

TH1 produce IFN-y(gamma symbol), which activaties cells related to

cell-mediated immunity, macrophages & Abs

41

-T Helper Cells-

TH2 activate

Eosinophils & B cells to produce IgE

42

-T Helper Cells-

TH17 stimulate the

innate immune system

43

What T helper cell activates eosinophils & B cells to produce IgE?

TH2

44

What T helper cell activates cells related to cell-mediated immunity, macrophages & Abs?

TH1

45

What T helper cell stimulate the innate immune system?

TH17

46

-T Cytotoxic Cells-

CD8+ or Tc(subscript) cells

47

-T Cytotoxic Cells-

Target cells are self-cells carrying

endogenous antigens

48

-T Cytotoxic Cells-

Activated in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)

* CTLs recognize Ag + MHCI

* Induce apoptosis in target cells

49

-T Cytotoxic Cells-

CTL releases

perforin & granzymes

50

-T Regulatory Cells-

Treg cells:

* CD4 & CD25 on surface

51

-T Regulatory Cells-

Suppress T cells against self

52

-Antigen-Presenting Cells-

Ag fragments on APC surface w/MHC:

* B cells
* Dendritic cells
* Activated macrophages

53

-Natuaral Killer (NK)Cells-

1

* Granular leukocytes destroy cells that don't express MHC I

54

-Natuaral Killer (NK)Cells-

2

** Kill virus-infected & tumor cells

55

-Natuaral Killer (NK)Cells-

3

*** Attack parasites

56

-ADCC-

* Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

57

-Cytokines-

Overproduction leads to

* cytokine storm

58

-Immunological Memory-

Antibody titer:

is the amount of Ab in serum

59

-Immunological Memory-

Primary response:

occurs after initial contact with Ag

60

-Immunological Memory-

Secondary (memory or anamnestic) response:

occurs after second exposure

61

-Types of Adaptive Immunity-

Naturally acquired active immunity:

Ag resulting from INFECTION

62

-Types of Adaptive Immunity-

Naturally acquired passive immunity:

Ab resulting from transplacental or via colostrum

63

-Types of Adaptive Immunity-

Artificially acquired active immunity:

Injection of Ag (vaccination)

64

-Types of Adaptive Immunity-

Artificially acquired passive immunity:

Injection of Ab

65

-Termionlogy of Adaptive Immunity-

SEROLOGY:

The study of reactions between antibodies & antigens

66

-Termionlogy of Adaptive Immunity-

ANTISERUM:

The generic term for serum because it contains Ab

67

-Termionlogy of Adaptive Immunity-

GLOBULINS:

Serum proteins

68

-Termionlogy of Adaptive Immunity-

IMMUNOGLOBULINS:

Antibodies

69

-Termionlogy of Adaptive Immunity-

GAMMA (y) GLOBULIN:

Serum fraction containing Ab

70

~These haven't been checked for spelling yet, so please excuse any errors at this time~

~These haven't been checked for spelling yet, so please excuse any errors at this time~