Gastrointestinal system

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1

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?

Select one:

  1. leptin
  2. gastrin
  3. insulin
  4. secretin
  5. cholecystokinin

5

2

Acidified chyme reaching the duodenum triggers the release of a hormone which causes the increased release of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice which neutralizes the duodenal contents. Which hormone?

Select one:

  1. glucagon
  2. ghrelin
  3. cholecystokinin
  4. secretin
  5. Leptin

4

3

Which is the correct name for the major vessel that carries digested and absorbed nutrients away from the gut?

Select one:

  1. the hepatic vein
  2. the mesenteric portal vein
  3. the internal hepatic vein
  4. the aorta
  5. the hepatic portal vein

5

4

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:

Select one:

  1. in capillaries within the villi
  2. in bile
  3. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
  4. in pancreatic juice
  5. in mucosal lymph vessels

3

5

Aft er digestion, products of triglycerides are absorbed by enterocytes - then what happens immediately to them?

Select one:

  1. they are broken down into sugars (glucose) and enter the bloodstream
  2. they are re-synthesised back into triglycerides and formed into chylomicrons which are then released and enter the lacteals
  3. they pass via active transport into the lymphatics (lacteals)
  4. they are actively secreted into the villous blood vessels
  5. they are converted into glycogen and stored in the liver

2

6

When fat enters the small intestine it initially interacts with which chemicals to form what sort of fluid?

Select one:

  1. bile salts to form an emulsion
  2. lipases to form a suspension
  3. amylases to form chyme
  4. cholesterol to form a saturated solution
  5. bilirubin to form a foam

1

7

Choose the best answer: Smooth muscle contraction in the gut usually occurs when:

Select one:

  1. hormones depolarize smooth muscle cells sufficiently
  2. enteric motor neurons inhibit smooth muscle
  3. migrating myoelectric complexes excite smooth muscle
  4. enteric motor neurons and slow waves together excite smooth muscle
  5. slow waves excite smooth muscle

4

8

The defaecatory reflex pathways are most powerfully activated by:

Select one:

  1. gastric distension
  2. oesophageal distension
  3. ileal distension
  4. rectal distension
  5. colonic distension

4

9

On one face, hepatocytes face the biliary canaliculus, on the other they face:

Select one:

  1. pancreatic acinar cells
  2. hepatic sinuses containing portal blood mixed with arterial blood
  3. gut contents
  4. arterial blood
  5. Lymph

2

10

Food arriving in the stomach causes a reflex which allows the contents to be stored at low pressure. What is this reflex called?

Select one:

  1. gastro-esophageal reflex
  2. ileo-gastric reflex
  3. receptive excitation reflex
  4. gastric accommodation reflex
  5. peristaltic reflex

4

11

Which of the following secretions contain large quantities of bicarbonate (choose the most complete answer)?

Select one:

  1. bile and pancreatic juice
  2. saliva and pancreatic juice
  3. saliva, pancreatic juice and bile
  4. saliva and bile
  5. saliva, pancreatic juice, bile and succus entericus

5

12

Which ring of circular muscle controls the rate of emptying of the stomach:

Select one:

  1. the gastro-colonic sphincter
  2. the longitudinal muscle layer
  3. the pylorus (pyloric sphincter)
  4. the lower oesophageal sphincter
  5. the ileo-caecal junction

3

13

Which is the correct name for the major vessel that carries digested and absorbed nutrients away from the gut?

Select one:

  1. the aorta
  2. the hepatic vein
  3. the internal hepatic vein
  4. the hepatic portal vein
  5. the mesenteric portal vein

4

14

What is the disorder called that causes pain when acidic contents pass backwards from one organ of the gastrointestinal tract into a more proximal organ?

Select one:

  1. colonic distension
  2. gastro-oesophageal reflux
  3. gastro-colic reflex
  4. colonic bypass
  5. ileo-caecal transit

2

15

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?

Select one:

  1. insulin
  2. cholecystokinin
  3. secretin
  4. gastrin
  5. Leptin

2

16

Which of the following gastrointestinal hormones is most likely to trigger sensations of hunger?

Select one:

  1. gastrin
  2. Peptide YY[3-36]
  3. ghrelin
  4. cholecystokinin
  5. Leptin

3

17

The inner surface of the gut wall which lines the lumen consists of:

Select one:

  1. exothelium
  2. endothelium
  3. epithelium
  4. mesothelium
  5. Mesenchyme

3

18

Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the ileum after interacting with which protein secreted by which cells in the stomach wall?

Select one:

  1. pepsinogen secreted by oxyntic cells
  2. enterokinase secreted by paneth cells
  3. bile salts secreted by goblet cells
  4. intrinsic factor secreted by chief cells
  5. intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells

5

19

Trypsinogen is an inactive enzyme which is largely converted to the active form, trypsin, by

Select one:

  1. enterokinase or enteropeptidase
  2. carboxypeptidase
  3. lipase
  4. the liver
  5. bile salts

1

20

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:

Select one:

  1. in pancreatic juice
  2. in capillaries within the villi
  3. in bile
  4. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
  5. in mucosal lymph vessels

4

21

Which of the following groups of sphincters are all made up of smooth muscle.
Select one:
a. the upper oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and internal anal sphincter
b. the lower oesophageal sphincter, ileocaecal junction and internal anal sphincter
c. the lower oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and external anal sphincter
d. the upper oesophageal sphincter, ileocaecal junction and external anal sphincter
e. the upper oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and internal anal sphincter

b

22

What is the disorder called that causes pain when acidic contents pass backwards from one organ of the gastrointestinal tract into a more proximal organ?
Select one:
a. gastro-oesophageal reflux
b. ileo-caecal transit
c. colonic bypass
d. colonic distension
e. gastro-colic reflex

a

23

The defaecatory reflex pathways are most powerfully activated by:
Select one:
a. gastric distension
b. colonic distension
c. ileal distension
d. rectal distension
e. oesophageal distension

d

24

Which of the following best explains how the gastric mucosal epithelium is protected from attack by gastric acid? It is protected by:
Select one:
a. secretion of chloride ions which dilute the acid
b. secretion of bicarbonate ions which neutralizes the acid
c. a continuous layer of mucous
d. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in chloride ions
e. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in bicarbonate ions

e

25

On one face, hepatocytes face the biliary canaliculus, on the other they face:
Select one:
a. gut contents
b. arterial blood
c. lymph
d. pancreatic acinar cells
e. hepatic sinuses containing portal blood mixed with arterial blood

e

26

The ____________ is a thick layer of connective tissue containing large blood vessels, which gives the gut wall most of its elasticity, strength and distensibility
Select one:
a. lamina propria
b. submucosa
c. myenteric plexus
d. muscularis externa
e. epithelium

b

27

Which of the following enzymes breaks triglycerides down into fatty acids and monoglycerides?
Select one:
a. lipase
b. amylase
c. carboxypeptidase
d. nuclease
e. peptidase

a

28

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:
Select one:
a. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
b. in mucosal lymph vessels
c. in bile
d. in capillaries within the villi
e. in pancreatic juice

a

29

Which of the following correctly describes the order of four tissues encountered when moving through the gut wall in the direction from the lumen to the other surface?:
Select one:
a. submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa
b. epithelium, lamina propria, serosa, muscularis mucosa
c. lamina propria, muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa
d. epithelium, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
e. epithelium, submucosa, serosa, lamina propria

d

30

As food is aliquotted from the stomach into the duodenum, it triggers a reflex to inhibit further gastric emptying. Which aspects of the food activate this reflex?
Select one:
a. all of these
b. high acidity
c. small peptides
d. amino acids
e. high osmolarity

a

31

Trypsinogen is an inactive enzyme which is largely converted to the active form, trypsin, by

Select one:
a. carboxypeptidase
b. enterokinase or enteropeptidase
c. bile salts
d. the liver
e. lipase

b

32

Which of the following secretions contain large quantities of bicarbonate (choose the most complete answer)?

Select one:
a. saliva and pancreatic juice
b. saliva, pancreatic juice and bile
c. saliva, pancreatic juice, bile and succus entericus
d. bile and pancreatic juice
e. saliva and bile

c

33

Which of the following groups of sphincters are all made up of smooth muscle.

Select one:
a. the lower oesophageal sphincter, ileocaecal junction and internal anal sphincter
b. the upper oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and internal anal sphincter
c. the upper oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and internal anal sphincter
d. the upper oesophageal sphincter, ileocaecal junction and external anal sphincter
e. the lower oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and external anal sphincter

a

34

Acidified chyme reaching the duodenum triggers the release of a hormone which causes the increased release of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice which neutralizes the duodenal contents. Which hormone?

Select one:
a. cholecystokinin
b. ghrelin
c. glucagon
d. leptin
e. secretin

e

35

Which ring of circular muscle controls the rate of emptying of the stomach:

Select one:
a. the gastro-colonic sphincter
b. the lower oesophageal sphincter
c. the pylorus (pyloric sphincter)
d. the longitudinal muscle layer
e. the ileo-caecal junction

c

36

On one face, hepatocytes face the biliary canaliculus, on the other they face:

Select one:
a. gut contents
b. arterial blood
c. hepatic sinuses containing portal blood mixed with arterial blood
d. lymph
e. pancreatic acinar cells

c

37

Where do slow waves occur?

Select one:
a. in the serosa
b. in the muscularis externa
c. in the myenteric plexus
d. in submucosal blood vessels
e. in the epithelium

c

38

Choose the best answer: Smooth muscle contraction in the gut usually occurs when:

Select one:
a. enteric motor neurons and slow waves together excite smooth muscle
b. hormones depolarize smooth muscle cells sufficiently
c. migrating myoelectric complexes excite smooth muscle
d. enteric motor neurons inhibit smooth muscle
e. slow waves excite smooth muscle

a

39

The surface area of the human small intestine is increased by small protruding finger-like extensions, 1-2mm long, what are these called?

Select one:
a. rugae
b. villi
c. microvilli
d. haustra
e. jejunal folds

b

40

Which of the following best explains how the gastric mucosal epithelium is protected from attack by gastric acid? It is protected by:

Select one:
a. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in chloride ions
b. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in bicarbonate ions
c. secretion of chloride ions which dilute the acid
d. a continuous layer of mucous
e. secretion of bicarbonate ions which neutralizes the acid

b

41

Migrating myoelectric complexes (MMCs) occur in the human small intestine at approximately what intervals?

a. every 5-10 minutes
b. every 20-30 minutes
c. every 90-120 minutes
d. 1-3 times per day
e. Never; they only occur in the colon

c

42

Which is the major vessel that carries digested and absorbed nutrients away from the gut?

a. the internal hepatic vein
b. the hepatic vein
c. the mesenteric portal vein
d. the hepatic portal vein
e. the aorta

d

43

Which of the following nervous pathways to the gut typically increases gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility?

a. enteric nervous system sensory
b. parasympathetic
c. somatic sensory
d. central nervous system
e. sympathetic

b

44

What is the disorder called that causes pain when acidic contents pass backwards from one organ of the gastrointestinal tract into a more proximal organ?

a. ileo-caecal transit
b. colonic distension
c. gastro-oesophageal reflux
d. colonic bypass
e. ileal necrosis

c

45

As food is aliquotted from the stomach into the duodenum, it triggers a reflex to inhibit further gastric emptying. Which aspects of the food activate this reflex?

a. high osmolarity
b. amino acids
c. high acidity
d. all of these
e. small peptides

d

46

Certain cells in the oxyntic glands of the stomach secrete a particular type of acid. Which cells and which acid?

a. goblet cells secrete sulphuric acid
b. parietal cells secrete nitric acid
c. parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid
d. chief cells secrete oxalic acid
e. chief cells secrete hydrochloric acid

c

47

The muscularis externa consists of which layers, starting at the external surface of the gut, moving towards the lumen?:
Select one:

a. a circular striated muscle layer then a longitudinal smooth muscle layer
b. a longitudinal smooth muscle layer then a circular smooth muscle layer
c. a circular smooth muscle layer then a longitudinal smooth muscle layer
d. a longitudinal striated muscle layer then a circular smooth muscle layer
e. a circular striated muscle layer then a longitudinal striated muscle layer

b

48

Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the ileum after interacting with which protein secreted by which cells in the stomach wall?
Select one:

a. intrinsic factor secreted by chief cells
b. pepsinogen secreted by oxyntic cells
c. bile salts secreted by goblet cells
d. enterokinase secreted by paneth cells
e. intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells

e

49

The ____________ is a thick layer of connective tissue containing large blood vessels, which gives the gut wall most of its elasticity, strength and distensibility
Select one:

a. muscularis externa
b. submucosa
c. epithelium
d. myenteric plexus
e. lamina propria

b

50

Which of the following is not a major constituent of saliva?

a. amylase
b. mucous
c. bicarbonate
d. peptidase
e. lysozyme

d

51

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:

a. in mucosal lymph vessels
b. in bile
c. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
d. in capillaries within the villi
e. in pancreatic juice

c

52

The inner surface of the gut wall which lines the lumen consists of:

a. mesenchyme
b. mesothelium
c. exothelium
d. epithelium
e. endothelium

d

53

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?

a. insulin
b. cholecystokinin
c. secretin
d. leptin
e. gastrin

b

54

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?

a. insulin
b. cholecystokinin
c. secretin
d. leptin
e. gastrin

d

55

Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
Select one:
a. production of bile
b. synthesis of digestive enzymes
c. removal of aged red blood cells
d. production of albumin
e. synthesis of glycogen

b

56

Food arriving in the stomach causes a reflex which allows the contents to be stored at low pressure. What is this reflex called?
Select one:
a. gastric accommodation reflex
b. receptive excitation reflex
c. peristaltic reflex
d. gastro-esophageal reflex
e. ileo-gastric reflex

a

57

Certain cells in the oxyntic glands of the stomach secrete a particular type of acid. Which cells and which acid?
Select one:
a. chief cells secrete hydrochloric acid
b. goblet cells secrete sulphuric acid
c. chief cells secrete oxalic acid
d. parietal cells secrete nitric acid
e. parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid

e

58

Choose the best answer: Smooth muscle contraction in the gut usually occurs when:
Select one:
a. migrating myoelectric complexes excite smooth muscle
b. hormones depolarize smooth muscle cells sufficiently
c. enteric motor neurons inhibit smooth muscle
d. enteric motor neurons and slow waves together excite smooth muscle
e. slow waves excite smooth muscle

d

59

Which ring of circular muscle controls the rate of emptying of the stomach:
Select one:
a. the ileo-caecal junction
b. the gastro-colonic sphincter
c. the lower oesophageal sphincter
d. the longitudinal muscle layer
e. the pylorus (pyloric sphincter)

e

60

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?
Select one:
a. cholecystokinin
b. gastrin
c. leptin
d. insulin
e. secretin

a

61

Acidified chyme reaching the duodenum triggers the release of a hormone which causes the increased release of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice which neutralizes the duodenal contents. Which hormone?
Select one:
a. leptin
b. ghrelin
c. secretin
d. glucagon
e. cholecystokinin

c

62

On one face, hepatocytes face the biliary canaliculus, on the other they face:
Select one:
a. gut contents
b. pancreatic acinar cells
c. arterial blood
d. lymph
e. hepatic sinuses containing portal blood mixed with arterial blood

e

63

Which of the following is not a major constituent of saliva?
Select one:
a. lysozyme
b. peptidase
c. bicarbonate
d. mucous
e. amylase

b

64

The ____________ is a thick layer of connective tissue containing large blood vessels, which gives the gut wall most of its elasticity, strength and distensibility
Select one:
a. submucosa
b. myenteric plexus
c. epithelium
d. lamina propria Incorrect
e. muscularis externa

a

65

Which of the following groups of sphincters are all made up of smooth muscle.
Select one:
a. the upper oesophageal sphincter, ileocaecal junction and external anal sphincter
b. the upper oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and internal anal sphincter
c. the upper oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and internal anal sphincter
d. the lower oesophageal sphincter, pyloric sphincter and external anal sphincter
e. the lower oesophageal sphincter, ileocaecal junction and internal anal sphincter

e

66

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?
Select one:

a. secretin
b. insulin
c. gastrin
d. cholecystokinin
e. leptin

d

67

When fat enters the small intestine it initially interacts with which chemicals to form what sort of fluid?
Select one:
a. amylases to form chyme
b. bilirubin to form a foam
c. bile salts to form an emulsion
d. lipases to form a suspension
e. cholesterol to form a saturated solution

c

68

Where do slow waves occur?
Select one:
a. in the epithelium
b. in the serosa
c. in the myenteric plexus
d. in submucosal blood vessels
e. in the muscularis externa

e

69

The surface area of the human small intestine is increased by small protruding finger-like extensions, 1-2mm long, what are these called?
Select one:
a. rugae
b. haustra
c. microvilli
d. villi Correct
e. jejunal folds

d

70

On one face, hepatocytes face the biliary canaliculus, on the other they face:
Select one:
a. pancreatic acinar cells
b. gut contents
c. arterial blood
d. lymph
e. hepatic sinuses containing portal blood mixed with arterial blood

e

71

Choose the best answer: Smooth muscle contraction in the gut usually occurs when:
Select one:
a. hormones depolarize smooth muscle cells sufficiently
b. migrating myoelectric complexes excite smooth muscle
c. enteric motor neurons and slow waves together excite smooth muscle
d. slow waves excite smooth muscle
e. enteric motor neurons inhibit smooth muscle t

e

72

Certain cells in the oxyntic glands of the stomach secrete a particular type of acid. Which cells and which acid?
Select one:
a. goblet cells secrete sulphuric acid
b. chief cells secrete oxalic acid
c. chief cells secrete hydrochloric acid
d. parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid
e. parietal cells secrete nitric acid

d

73

As food is aliquotted from the stomach into the duodenum, it triggers a reflex to inhibit further gastric emptying. Which aspects of the food activate this reflex?
Select one:
a. high osmolarity
b. all of these
c. high acidity
d. amino acids
e. small peptides

b

74

On one face, hepatocytes face the biliary canaliculus, on the other they face:

Select one:
a. gut contents
b. hepatic sinuses containing portal blood mixed with arterial blood
c. arterial blood
d. lymph
e. pancreatic acinar cells

b

75

The surface area of the human small intestine is increased by small protruding finger-like extensions, 1-2mm long, what are these called?

Select one:
a. haustra
b. rugae
c. jejunal folds
d. villi
e. microvilli

d

76

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?

Select one:
a. secretin
b. cholecystokinin
c. leptin
d. gastrin
e. insulin

b

77

Which of the following is not a major constituent of saliva?

Select one:
a. bicarbonate
b. amylase
c. peptidase
d. lysozyme
e. mucous

c

78

Acidified chyme reaching the duodenum triggers the release of a hormone which causes the increased release of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice which neutralizes the duodenal contents. Which hormone?

Select one:
a. leptin
b. cholecystokinin
c. glucagon
d. secretin
e. ghrelin

d

79

Which of the following best explains how the gastric mucosal epithelium is protected from attack by gastric acid? It is protected by:

Select one:
a. secretion of bicarbonate ions which neutralizes the acid
b. a continuous layer of mucous
c. secretion of chloride ions which dilute the acid
d. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in chloride ions
e. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in bicarbonate ions

e

80

Migrating myoelectric complexes (MMCs) occur in the human small intestine at approximately what intervals between meals?

Select one:
a. every 5-10 minutes
b. every 20-30 minutes
c. every 90-120 minutes
d. 1-3 times per day
e. Never; they only occur in the colon

c

81

Which of the following correctly describes the order of four tissues encountered when moving through the gut wall in the direction from the lumen to the other surface?:

Select one:
a. epithelium, submucosa, serosa, lamina propria
b. lamina propria, muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa
c. epithelium, lamina propria, serosa, muscularis mucosa
d. epithelium, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
e. submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa

d

82

Which of the following enzymes breaks triglycerides down into fatty acids and monoglycerides?

Select one:
a. carboxypeptidase
b. amylase
c. peptidase
d. lipase
e. nuclease

d

83

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:

Select one:
a. in mucosal lymph vessels
b. in pancreatic juice
c. in bile
d. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
e. in capillaries within the villi

d

84

After digestion, products of triglycerides are absorbed by enterocytes - then what happens immediately to them?
Select one:
a. they pass via active transport into the lymphatics (lacteals)
b. they are broken down into sugars (glucose) and enter the blood stream
c. they are re-synthesised back into triglycerides and formed into chylomicrons which are then released and enter the lacteals
d. they are converted into glycogen and stored in the liver
e. they are actively secreted into the villous blood vessels

c

85

Food arriving in the stomach causes a reflex which allows the contents to be stored at low pressure. What is this reflex called?
Select one:
a. receptive excitation reflex
b. peristaltic reflex
c. gastro-esophageal reflex
d. ileo-gastric reflex
e. gastric accommodation reflex

e

86

The surface area of the human small intestine is increased by small protruding finger-like extensions, 1-2mm long, what are these called?
Select one:
a. jejunal folds
b. microvilli
c. rugae
d. haustra
e. villi

e

87

The muscularis externa consists of which layers, starting at the external surface of the gut, moving towards the lumen?:
Select one:
a. a circular striated muscle layer then a longitudinal striated muscle layer
b. a longitudinal smooth muscle layer then a circular smooth muscle layer
c. a circular smooth muscle layer then a longitudinal smooth muscle layer
d. a longitudinal striated muscle layer then a circular smooth muscle layer
e. a circular striated muscle layer then a longitudinal smooth muscle layer

b

88

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:
Select one:
a. in pancreatic juice
b. in capillaries within the villi
c. in bile
d. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
e. in mucosal lymph vessels

d

89

Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the ileum after interacting with which protein secreted by which cells in the stomach wall?
Select one:
a. pepsinogen secreted by oxyntic cells
b. bile salts secreted by goblet cells
c. intrinsic factor secreted by chief cells
d. enterokinase secreted by paneth cells
e. intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells

e

90

Which of the following correctly describes the order of four tissues encountered when moving through the gut wall in the direction from the lumen to the other surface?:
Select one:
a. epithelium, lamina propria, serosa, muscularis mucosa
b. epithelium, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
c. epithelium, submucosa, serosa, lamina propria
d. lamina propria, muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa
e. submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa

b

91

When food reaches the duodenum, a hormone is released that causes bile to be ejected from the gall bladder - which hormone?
Select one:
a. leptin
b. insulin
c. secretin
d. cholecystokinin
e. gastrin

d

92

Which of the following best explains how the gastric mucosal epithelium is protected from attack by gastric acid? It is protected by:
Select one:
a. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in bicarbonate ions
b. a continuous layer of mucous
c. secretion of bicarbonate ions which neutralizes the acid
d. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in chloride ions
e. secretion of chloride ions which dilute the acid

a

93

Which ring of circular muscle controls the rate of emptying of the stomach:
Select one:
a. the longitudinal muscle layer
b. the lower oesophageal sphincter
c. the ileo-caecal junction
d. the pylorus (pyloric sphincter)
e. the gastro-colonic sphincter

d

94

The inner surface of the gut wall which lines the lumen consists of:
Select one:
a. epithelium
b. mesenchyme
c. mesothelium
d. endothelium
e. exothelium

a

95

Which of the following is not a major constituent of saliva?
Select one:
a. lysozyme
b. peptidase
c. mucous
d. bicarbonate
e. amylase

b

96

Which of the following correctly describes the order of four tissues encountered when moving through the gut wall in the direction from the lumen to the other surface?:
Select one:
a. epithelium, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
b. epithelium, submucosa, serosa, lamina propria
c. lamina propria, muscularis externa, submucosa, serosa
d. epithelium, lamina propria, serosa, muscularis mucosa
e. submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa

a

97

Acidified chyme reaching the duodenum triggers the release of a hormone which causes the increased release of bicarbonate ions in pancreatic juice which neutralizes the duodenal contents. Which hormone?
Select one:
a. glucagon
b. leptin
c. secretin
d. cholecystokinin
e. ghrelin

c

98

Which of the following best explains how the gastric mucosal epithelium is protected from attack by gastric acid? It is protected by:
Select one:
a. secretion of bicarbonate ions which neutralizes the acid
b. secretion of chloride ions which dilute the acid
c. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in bicarbonate ions
d. a continuous layer of mucous
e. secretion of mucous and a solution rich in chloride ions

c

99

Enzymes that break down disaccharides are located:
Select one:
a. in capillaries within the villi
b. in mucosal lymph vessels
c. on the apical membranes of epithelial cells
d. in pancreatic juice
e. in bile

c

100

The muscularis externa consists of which layers, starting at the external surface of the gut, moving towards the lumen?:
Select one:
a. a longitudinal smooth muscle layer then a circular smooth muscle layer
b. a longitudinal striated muscle layer then a circular smooth muscle layer
c. a circular striated muscle layer then a longitudinal smooth muscle layer
d. a circular smooth muscle layer then a longitudinal smooth muscle layer
e. a circular striated muscle layer then a longitudinal striated muscle layer

a

101

Which ring of circular muscle controls the rate of emptying of the stomach:
Select one:
a. the gastro-colonic sphincter
b. the lower oesophageal sphincter
c. the longitudinal muscle layer
d. the pylorus (pyloric sphincter)
e. the ileo-caecal junction

d

102

Migrating myoelectric complexes (MMCs) occur in the human small intestine at approximately what intervals between meals?
Select one:
a. every 5-10 minutes
b. every 20-30 minutes
c. every 90-120 minutes
d. 1-3 times per day
e. Never; they only occur in the colon

c

103

When fat enters the small intestine it initially interacts with which chemicals to form what sort of fluid?
Select one:
a. bile salts to form an emulsion
b. bilirubin to form a foam
c. amylases to form chyme
d. cholesterol to form a saturated solution
e. lipases to form a suspension

a