Respiratory System

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1

Which of the following statements is correct:

Select one:

  1. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the tissues than in the arterial blood.
  2. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the venous blood than in the arterial blood.
  3. the concentration of oxygen is highest in the heart.
  4. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the lung than in other tissues
  5. the concentration of oxygen in highest in the tissues

4

2

In which of the following conditions in blood stimulate peripheral chemoreceptors?

Select one:

  1. low oxygen and increased hydrogen ions
  2. low oxygen and low CO2
  3. increased hydrogen ions and low CO2
  4. high oxygen and high CO2.
  5. high CO2 and decreased hydrogen ion

1

3

For effective gas exchange you need:

Select one:

  1. a high gas pressure and a small surface area
  2. a large surface area and a small gas diffusion distance
  3. a large surface area and a large gas diffusion distance
  4. a small surface area and large gas diffusion distance
  5. a low gas pressure and a small gas diffusion distance

2

4

Which of the following is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (WV) in humidified air at 1 atmosphere.

Select one:

  1. N2 630, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 4.7
  2. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3, WV 4.7
  3. N2 600, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 47
  4. N2 580, O2 142, CO2 1.3, WV 47
  5. N2 563, O2 149, CO2 0.3, WV 47

5

5

During expiration:

Select one:

  1. the pressure in the lung is the same as atmospheric
  2. the pressure in the plural cavity is greater than atmospheric
  3. the pressure in the lung is less than atmospheric
  4. the pressure in the plural cavity is the same as atmospheric
  5. the pressure in the lung is greater than atmospheric

5

6

The total cross sectional area of the lung dramatically increases at

Select one:

  1. airway generation number 5
  2. airway generation number 8
  3. airway generation number 12
  4. airway generation number 15
  5. airway generation number 23

4

7

Which of the following statements is incorrect.

Select one:

  1. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when the blood becomes more acidic.
  2. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood increases.
  3. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when the blood temperature increases.
  4. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when carbon monoxide is present in the blood.
  5. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when 2,3 DPG is present in the blood.

4

8

Which of the following statements is correct

Select one:

  1. the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart
  2. the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the lungs
  3. the pulmonary vein carries de-oxygenated blood to the heart
  4. the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
  5. none of the above are true

4

9

The recoil of the lung during normal expiration is due:

Select one:

  1. to both the elastic fibres and surface tension in the lung.
  2. to atmospheric pressure sucking the air out of the lung.
  3. entirely to surface tension in the lung.
  4. only to the collagen and elastin fibres in the lung
  5. to the rib cage compressing the lung

1

10

The unique property of pulmonary surfactant is that:

Select one:

  1. it stops macrophages from digesting the lung
  2. On expiration it can increase surface tension as the alveolus gets smaller
  3. It lines the entire lung
  4. it helps the ciliated cells beat freely.
  5. On expiration it can reduce surface tension as the alveolus gets smaller

5

11

Which of the following statements is correct:

Select one:

  1. the concentration of oxygen is highest in the heart.
  2. the concentration of oxygen in highest in the tissues
  3. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the venous blood than in the arterial blood.
  4. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the lung than in other tissues
  5. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the tissues than in the arterial blood.

4

12

Which of the following is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (WV) in humidified air at 1 atmosphere.

Select one:

  1. N2 630, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 4.7
  2. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3, WV 4.7
  3. N2 600, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 47
  4. N2 580, O2 142, CO2 1.3, WV 47
  5. N2 563, O2 149, CO2 0.3, WV 47

5

13

Total lung capacity is the sum of:

Select one:

  1. tidal volume, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume
  2. vital capacity and residual volume
  3. vital capacity and inspiratory capacity
  4. vital capacity, and functional residual capacity
  5. inspiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity

2

14

Which is/are the main muscle/s of respiration

Select one:

  1. the intercostal muscles
  2. abdominal muscles
  3. the accessory muscles
  4. scalenes
  5. the diaphragm

5

15

Which of the following statements is incorrect.

Select one:

  1. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when the blood temperature increases.
  2. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when 2,3 DPG is present in the blood.
  3. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when the carbon dioxide concentration in the blood increases.
  4. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when the blood becomes more acidic.
  5. The oxygen dissociation curve shifts to the right when carbon monoxide is present in the blood.

5

16

Which of the following statements is correct

Select one:

  1. the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart
  2. the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the lungs
  3. the pulmonary vein carries de-oxygenated blood to the heart
  4. the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
  5. none of the above are true

4

17

The Law of Young and Laplace describes

Select one:

  1. the collapsing pressure in the alveolus due to surface tension.
  2. how air moves in and out of the lung.
  3. the collapsing pressure of the whole lung
  4. the collapsing pressure in the capillaries.
  5. how blood moves through the capillaries in the lung.

1

18

The internal intercostal muscles are used during

Select one:

  1. inspiration
  2. passive expiration
  3. active expiration
  4. exercise
  5. both c and d

5

19

Pulmonary capillaries

Select one:

  1. are made from type I cells
  2. have very thick walls because of the large pressure
  3. form a meshwork around the alveolus
  4. are in close contact with the conducting region
  5. are very long and have a large resistance

3

20

Residual volume is

Select one:

  1. the volume of air left in the lung after normal expiration
  2. a volume that can be measured with a spirometer
  3. always larger than functional residual capacity
  4. the sum of functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume
  5. the volume in the lung left after forced expiration

5

21

Total lung capacity is the sum of:
Select one:
a. vital capacity and residual volume
b. vital capacity, and functional residual capacity
c. tidal volume, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume
d. inspiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity
e. vital capacity and inspiratory capacity

a

22

Pulmonary capillaries
Select one:
a. have very thick walls because of the large pressure
b. form a meshwork around the alveolus
c. are in close contact with the conducting region
d. are made from type I cells
e. are very long and have a large resistance

b

23

Which of the following statements is correct:
Select one:
a. the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the arterial blood than in the tissues.
b. carbon dioxide is only produced in muscle cells
c. carbon dioxide is less soluble in blood than oxygen
d. the concentration of carbon dioxide is highest in the lung
e. the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in venous blood than in arterial blood.

e

24

The Law of Young and Laplace describes
Select one:
a. the collapsing pressure of the whole lung
b. the collapsing pressure in the alveolus due to surface tension.
c. the collapsing pressure in the capillaries.
d. how air moves in and out of the lung.
e. how blood moves through the capillaries in the lung.

b

25

The total cross sectional area of the lung dramatically increases at
Select one:
a. airway generation number 5 Incorrect
b. airway generation number 8
c. airway generation number 12
d. airway generation number 15
e. airway generation number 23

d

26

Gas exchange takes place in:
Select one:
a. the trachea and bronchioles of the lung.
b. the lung connective tissue.
c. the conducting regions of the lung.
d. all regions of the lung.
e. the alveolus.

e

27

Which of the following statements is correct
Select one:
a. the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart
b. the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the lungs
c. the pulmonary vein carries de-oxygenated blood to the heart
d. the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
e. none of the above are true

d

28

The plural cavity:
Select one:
a. is a sealed sac wrapped around each lung
b. is connected to the lung and the ribs
c. stops the lung from collapsing
d. is filled with a lubricating fluid
e. all of the above are correct.

e

29

During expiration:
Select one:
a. the pressure in the lung is greater than atmospheric
b. the pressure in the plural cavity is the same as atmospheric
c. the pressure in the lung is the same as atmospheric
d. the pressure in the lung is less than atmospheric
e. the pressure in the plural cavity is greater than atmospheric

a

30

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 45 mmHg
d. 75 mmHg
e. 90 mmHg

c

31

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is

Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 45 mmHg
d. 75 mmHg
e. 90 mmHg

c

32

The plural cavity:

Select one:
a. is a sealed sac wrapped around each lung
b. is connected to the lung and the ribs
c. stops the lung from collapsing
d. is filled with a lubricating fluid
e. all of the above are correct.

e

33

Pulmonary surfactant is produced and secreted by:

Select one:
a. alveolar type II cells
b. goblet cells
c. alveolar type I cells
d. alveolar macrophages
e. ciliated cells

a

34

Pulmonary capillaries

Select one:
a. form a meshwork around the alveolus
b. are made from type I cells
c. are very long and have a large resistance
d. have very thick walls because of the large pressure
e. are in close contact with the conducting region

a

35

Which of the following statements is correct

Select one:
a. the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart
b. the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the lungs
c. the pulmonary vein carries de-oxygenated blood to the heart
d. the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
e. none of the above are true

d

36

The internal intercostal muscles are used during

Select one:
a. inspiration
b. passive expiration
c. active expiration
d. exercise
e. both c and d

e

37

Which of one of the following contains only components involved in the control of breathing?

Select one:
a. pneumotaxic centre, peripheral chemoreceptors, hippocampus
b. diaphragm, terminal bronchioles, central chemoreceptors
c. peripheral chemoreceptors, ventral respiratory group, pons
d. supra-optic nucleus, central chemoreceptors, scalenes
e. ventral respiratory group, central chemoreceptors, paraventricular nucleus.

c

38

Gas exchange takes place in:

Select one:
a. the lung connective tissue.
b. the conducting regions of the lung.
c. all regions of the lung.
d. the trachea and bronchioles of the lung.
e. the alveolus.

e

39

Cartilage is found in:

Select one:
a. all regions of the lung
b. throughout the conducting regions of the lung
c. the trachea and bronchi
d. the plural cavity
e. the bronchi and bronchioles

c

40

External intercostal muscles are

Select one:
a. connected to the lung by ligaments
b. involved in expiration
c. involved in active inspiration
d. connected to the diaphragm
e. connected to the collar bone

c

41

Prior to inspiration the pressure in the plural cavity is:

a. 710 mmHg
b. 756 mmHg
c. 760 mmHg
d. 770 mmHg
e. none of the above

b

42

During normal breathing:

a. inspiration is active and expiration is passive
b. inspiration is passive and expiration is active
c. inspiration is active and expiration is active
d. inspiration is passive and expiration is passive
e. none of the above are correct

a

43

Residual volume is

a. the volume of air left in the lung after normal expiration
b. always larger than functional residual capacity
c. a volume that can be measured with a spirometer
d. the volume in the lung left after forced expiration
e. the sum of functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume

d

44

Which of the following is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (WV) in humidified air at 1 atmosphere.

a. N2 630, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 4.7
b. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3, WV 4.7
c. N2 600, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 47
d. N2 580, O2 142, CO2 1.3, WV 47
e. N2 563, O2 149, CO2 0.3, WV 47

e

45

The recoil of the lung during normal expiration is due:

a. to both the elastic fibres and surface tension in the lung.
b. to atmospheric pressure sucking the air out of the lung.
c. to the rib cage compressing the lung
d. entirely to surface tension in the lung.
e. only to the collagen and elastin fibres in the lung

a

46

Which cells would you expect to find in the alveolus:

a. Clara cells and macrophages
b. goblet cells and macrophages
c. ciliated cells and type I cells
d. Clara cells and type II cells
e. Type I and type II cells

e

47

Ciliated cells in the airways:

a. beat in a wave like manner to remove debris from the lung
b. beat in a random motion to keep mucus glands clear
c. increase the surface area for reabsorption of fluid
d. secrete pulmonary surfactant
e. secrete mucus

a

48

The unique property of pulmonary surfactant is that:

a. it helps the ciliated cells beat freely.
b. It lines the entire lung
c. On expiration it can increase surface tension as the alveolus gets smaller
d. it stops macrophages form digesting the lung
e. On expiration it can reduce surface tension as the alveolus gets smaller

e

49

The oxygen saturation in venous blood is

a. 98%
b. 75%
c. 50%
d. 40%
e. 23%

b

50

For effective gas exchange you need:

a. a small surface area and large gas diffusion distance
b. a low gas pressure and a small gas diffusion distance
c. a high gas pressure and a small surface area
d. a large surface area and a large gas diffusion distance
e. a large surface area and a small gas diffusion distance

e

51

For an average size person tidal volume is approximately:
Select one:

a. 50 ml
b. 500 ml
c. 1000 ml
d. 1500 ml
e. 5000 ml

b

52

The total cross sectional area of the lung dramatically increases at
Select one:

a. airway generation number 5
b. airway generation number 8
c. airway generation number 12
d. airway generation number 15
e. airway generation number 23

d

53

The area of the gas exchange region of the lung in a normal person is:
Select one:

a. about 10 square metres.
b. about 20 square metres.
c. about half the size of a tennis court.
d. about the size of a football oval.
e. none of the above

c

54

Which is/are the main muscle/s of respiration
Select one:

a. abdominal muscles
b. the intercostal muscles
c. the diaphragm
d. scalenes
e. the accessory muscle

c

55

Functional residual capacity is

a. vital capacity minus the residual volume
b. total lung capacity minus the inspiratory capacity
c. total lung capacity minus inspiratory reserve volume and tidal volume.
d. total lung capacity minus inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume.
e. both b and c are correct.

e

56

The partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood is

a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 75 mmHg
d. 95 mmHg
e. 150mmHg

b

57

Which of the following statements is correct:

a. the concentration of oxygen is highest in the heart.
b. the concentration of oxygen in highest in the tissues
c. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the lung than in other tissues
d. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the tissues than in the arterial blood.
e. the concentration of oxygen is higher in the venous blood than in the arterial blood.

c

58

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood is:

a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 46 mmHg
d. 75 mmHg
e. 90 mmHg

b

59

Pulmonary surfactant is produced and secreted by:
Select one:
a. alveolar macrophages
b. alveolar type I cells
c. alveolar type II cells
d. goblet cells
e. ciliated cells

c

60

The gas diffusion distance in the lung is approximately:
Select one:
a. 0.5 nm
b. 5 nm
c. 0.5 um
d. 5 um
e. 50 um

c

61

Which of the following are all part of the conducting region of the lung.
Select one:
a. the bronchi, the bronchioles and the larynx
b. the respiratory bronchioles, the bronchi and the pharynx
c. the trachea, bronchioles and the alveolar sac
d. the larynx, the bronchi and the alveolus
e. the pharynx, the trachea and the alveolus

a

62

The internal intercostal muscles are used during
Select one:
a. inspiration
b. passive expiration
c. active expiration
d. exercise
e. both c and d

e

63

Which of the following is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (WV) in humidified air at 1 atmosphere.
Select one:
a. N2 630, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 4.7
b. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3, WV 4.7
c. N2 600, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 47
d. N2 580, O2 142, CO2 1.3, WV 47
e. N2 563, O2 149, CO2 0.3, WV 47

e

64

The recoil of the lung during normal expiration is due:
Select one:
a. to both the elastic fibres and surface tension in the lung.
b. only to the collagen and elastin fibres in the lung
c. to the rib cage compressing the lung
d. entirely to surface tension in the lung.
e. to atmospheric pressure sucking the air out of the lung.

a

65

Which is/are the main muscle/s of respiration
Select one:
a. the intercostal muscles
b. abdominal muscles
c. the accessory muscles
d. the diaphragm
e. scalenes

d

66

The partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 75 mmHg
d. 95 mmHg
e. 150mmHg

b

67

The total cross sectional area of the lung dramatically increases at
Select one:
a. airway generation number 5
b. airway generation number 8
c. airway generation number 12
d. airway generation number 15
e. airway generation number 23

d

68

Which of the following statements is correct:
Select one:
a. the concentration of carbon dioxide is highest in the lung
b. the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the arterial blood than in the tissues.
c. carbon dioxide is only produced in muscle cells
d. the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in venous blood than in arterial blood.
e. carbon dioxide is less soluble in blood than oxygen

d

69

Total lung capacity is the sum of:
Select one:
a. vital capacity and residual volume
b. tidal volume, inspiratory capacity and expiratory reserve volume
c. vital capacity, and functional residual capacity
d. inspiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity
e. vital capacity and inspiratory capacity

a

70

For an average size person total lung capacity is approximately:
Select one:
a. 2,000ml
b. 3,500ml
c. 5,000ml
d. 7,500 ml
e. 10,000 ml

c

71

During expiration:
Select one:
a. the pressure in the lung is greater than atmospheric
b. the pressure in the plural cavity is greater than atmospheric
c. the pressure in the lung is less than atmospheric
d. the pressure in the plural cavity is the same as atmospheric
e. the pressure in the lung is the same as atmospheric

a

72

Which of one of the following contains only components involved in the control of breathing?
Select one:
a. pneumotaxic centre, peripheral chemoreceptors, hippocampus
b. supra-optic nucleus, central chemoreceptors, scalenes
c. peripheral chemoreceptors, ventral respiratory group, pons
d. diaphragm, terminal bronchioles, central chemoreceptors
e. ventral respiratory group, central chemoreceptors, paraventricular nucleus.

c

73

The oxygen saturation in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 98%
b. 75%
c. 50%
d. 40%
e. 23%

b

74

The internal intercostal muscles are used during
Select one:
a. inspiration
b. passive expiration
c. active expiration
d. exercise
e. both c and d

e

75

Functional residual capacity is
Select one:
a. vital capacity minus the residual volume
b. total lung capacity minus the inspiratory capacity
c. total lung capacity minus inspiratory reserve volume and tidal volume.
d. total lung capacity minus inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume.
e. both b and c are correct.

e

76

xternal intercostal muscles are
Select one:
a. involved in active inspiration
b. connected to the collar bone
c. involved in expiration
d. connected to the diaphragm
e. connected to the lung by ligaments

a

77

The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is
Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 75 mmHg
d. 95 mmHg
e. 150 mmHg

d

78

A pneumothorax occurs when:
Select one:
a. air enters the lung
b. the intercostal muscles are damaged
c. the diaphragm is damaged
d. air enters the plural cavity
e. the ribs become stiff

d

79

Pulmonary surfactant is produced and secreted by:
Select one:
a. alveolar macrophages
b. alveolar type I cells
c. alveolar type II cells
d. goblet cells
e. ciliated cells

c

80

The gas diffusion distance in the lung is approximately:
Select one:
a. 0.5 nm
b. 5 nm
c. 0.5 um
d. 5 um
e. 50 um

c

81

Which of the following are all part of the conducting region of the lung.
Select one:
a. the bronchi, the bronchioles and the larynx
b. the respiratory bronchioles, the bronchi and the pharynx
c. the trachea, bronchioles and the alveolar sac
d. the larynx, the bronchi and the alveolus
e. the pharynx, the trachea and the alveolus

a

82

The internal intercostal muscles are used during
Select one:
a. inspiration
b. passive expiration
c. active expiration
d. exercise
e. both c and d

e

83

Which of the following is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (WV) in humidified air at 1 atmosphere.
Select one:
a. N2 630, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 4.7
b. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3, WV 4.7
c. N2 600, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 47
d. N2 580, O2 142, CO2 1.3, WV 47
e. N2 563, O2 149, CO2 0.3, WV 47

e

84

The recoil of the lung during normal expiration is due:
Select one:
a. to both the elastic fibres and surface tension in the lung.
b. only to the collagen and elastin fibres in the lung
c. to the rib cage compressing the lung
d. entirely to surface tension in the lung.
e. to atmospheric pressure sucking the air out of the lung.

a

85

Which is/are the main muscle/s of respiration
Select one:
a. the intercostal muscles
b. abdominal muscles
c. the accessory muscles
d. the diaphragm
e. scalenes

d

86

The partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 75 mmHg
d. 95 mmHg
e. 150mmHg

b

87

The total cross sectional area of the lung dramatically increases at
Select one:
a. airway generation number 5
b. airway generation number 8
c. airway generation number 12
d. airway generation number 15
e. airway generation number 23

d

88

Which of the following statements is correct:
Select one:
a. the concentration of carbon dioxide is highest in the lung
b. the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the arterial blood than in the tissues.
c. carbon dioxide is only produced in muscle cells
d. the concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in venous blood than in arterial blood.
e. carbon dioxide is less soluble in blood than oxygen

d

89

During expiration:
Select one:
a. the pressure in the plural cavity is the same as atmospheric
b. the pressure in the lung is greater than atmospheric
c. the pressure in the plural cavity is greater than atmospheric
d. the pressure in the lung is less than atmospheric
e. the pressure in the lung is the same as atmospheric

b

90

Which of the following statements is correct
Select one:
a. the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart
b. the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the lungs
c. the pulmonary vein carries de-oxygenated blood to the heart
d. the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
e. none of the above are true

d

91

Cartilage is found in:
Select one:
a. the trachea and bronchi
b. the plural cavity
c. throughout the conducting regions of the lung
d. the bronchi and bronchioles
e. all regions of the lung

a

92

Vital capacity is
Select one:
a. the total amount of air you can breathe out in one large breath.
b. the total lung capacity minus the residual volume.
c. the sum of the inspiratory capacity and the expiratory reserve volume.
d. the sum of the inspiratory reserve volume, the tidal volume and the expiratory reserve volume.
e. all of the above are correct

e

93

Which of the following is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (WV) in humidified air at 1 atmosphere.
Select one:
a. N2 630, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 4.7
b. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3, WV 4.7
c. N2 600, O2 120, CO2 0.3, WV 47
d. N2 580, O2 142, CO2 1.3, WV 47
e. N2 563, O2 149, CO2 0.3, WV 47

e

94

Which of the follow is the correct set of partial pressures (mmHg) for nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in dry air at 1 atmosphere.
Select one:
a. N2 650, O2 100, CO2 0.3
b. N2 620, O2 132, CO2 1.3
c. N2 600, O2 152, CO2 0.3
d. N2 632, O2 122, CO2 1.3
e. N2 610, O2 142, CO2 0.3

c

95

Central chemoreceptors respond directly to
Select one:
a. hydrogen ion in the cerebrospinal fluid.
b. CO2 in cerebrospinal fluid.
c. low oxygen in the cerebrospinal fluid.
d. low oxygen in the blood
e. CO2 in the blood.

a

96

The Law of Young and Laplace describes
Select one:
a. the collapsing pressure in the capillaries. Incorrect
b. how air moves in and out of the lung.
c. the collapsing pressure in the alveolus due to surface tension.
d. how blood moves through the capillaries in the lung.
e. the collapsing pressure of the whole lung

c

97

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 45 mmHg
d. 75 mmHg
e. 90 mmHg

c

98

Which of one of the following contain only components involved in the control of breathing?
Select one:
a. ventral respiratory group, bronchus, pneumotaxic centre.
b. amygdala, ventral respiratory group, internal intercostal muscles
c. pons, terminal bronchioles, central chemoreceptors.
d. diaphragm, peripheral chemoreceptors, basal ganglia
e. dorsal respiratory group, central chemoreceptors, pons

e

99

During expiration:
Select one:
a. the pressure in the lung is the same as atmospheric
b. the pressure in the plural cavity is greater than atmospheric
c. the pressure in the lung is less than atmospheric
d. the pressure in the plural cavity is the same as atmospheric
e. the pressure in the lung is greater than atmospheric

e

100

Which of the following statements is correct
Select one:
a. the pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood to the heart
b. the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the lungs
c. the pulmonary vein carries de-oxygenated blood to the heart
d. the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs
e. none of the above are true

d

101

The unique property of pulmonary surfactant is that:
Select one:
a. It lines the entire lung
b. it helps the ciliated cells beat freely.
c. it stops macrophages form digesting the lung
d. On expiration it can increase surface tension as the alveolus gets smaller
e. On expiration it can reduce surface tension as the alveolus gets smaller

e

102

Which cells would you expect to find in the alveolus:
Select one:
a. goblet cells and macrophages
b. Clara cells and type II cells
c. Clara cells and macrophages
d. ciliated cells and type I cells
e. Type I and type II cells

e

103

Pulmonary surfactant is produced and secreted by:
Select one:
a. goblet cells
b. alveolar type II cells
c. ciliated cells
d. alveolar macrophages
e. alveolar type I cells

b

104

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 23 mmHg
b. 40 mmHg
c. 45 mmHg
d. 75 mmHg
e. 90 mmHg

c

105

For effective gas exchange you need:
Select one:
a. a low gas pressure and a small gas diffusion distance
b. a large surface area and a large gas diffusion distance
c. a high gas pressure and a small surface area
d. a large surface area and a small gas diffusion distance
e. a small surface area and large gas diffusion distance

d

106

Which of one of the following contain only components involved in the control of breathing?
Select one:
a. dorsal respiratory group, central chemoreceptors, pons
b. ventral respiratory group, bronchus, pneumotaxic centre.
c. pons, terminal bronchioles, central chemoreceptors.
d. amygdala, ventral respiratory group, internal intercostal muscles
e. diaphragm, peripheral chemoreceptors, basal ganglia

a

107

Which of one of the following contains only components involved in the control of breathing?
Select one:
a. diaphragm, terminal bronchioles, central chemoreceptors
b. supra-optic nucleus, central chemoreceptors, scalenes
c. ventral respiratory group, central chemoreceptors, paraventricular nucleus.
d. pneumotaxic centre, peripheral chemoreceptors, hippocampus
e. peripheral chemoreceptors, ventral respiratory group, pons

c

108

The oxygen saturation in venous blood is
Select one:
a. 98%
b. 75%
c. 50%
d. 40%
e. 23%

b