Chapter 17 - Histology of Nervous Tissues Flashcards


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1

Neuroglia/ Glial Cells

Nonexcitable cells of neural tissue that support, protect, and insulate the neurons.

2

Astrocytes

A type of CNS supporting cell; assists in exchanges between blood capillaries and neurons.

3

Oligodendrocytes

A type of CNS supporting cell that composes myelin sheaths.

4

Microglia

A type of CNS supporting cell; can transform into phagocytes in areas of neural damage or inflammation.

5

Ependymal Cells

A type of CNS supporting cell; lines the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord.

6

Satellite Cells

A type of supporting cell in the PNS; forms myelin sheaths with schwann cells

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Schwann Cells

A type of supporting cell in the PNS; forms myelin sheaths and is vital to peripheral nerve fiber regeneration.

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Neuron

Cell of the nervous system specialized to generate and transmit electrical signals (action potentials and graded potentials).

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Cell Body

The biosynthetic center of a neuron; Contains the nucleus and is where dendrites extend from.
-Also called the perikaryon, or soma.

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Nuclei

Clusters of neuron cell bodies; found mostly in CNS.

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Ganglia

Collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS.

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Tracts

A collection of axons in the CNS having the same origin, termination, and function.

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Nerves

A bundle of axons in the PNS.

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Neurofibrils

The cytoplasmic elements of a neuron.

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Nissl Bodies

Rough ER of the neuron that is involved in metabolic activites.

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Dendrites

Branching neuron process that serves as a receptive, or input, region; transmits an electrical signal toward the cell body.

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Axons

Neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process; the conducting portion of a nerve cell.

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Axon Hillock

Distal part of the cell body that is slightly enlarged.

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Action Potential

A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber.

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Synaptic Cleft

Fluid-filled space at a synapse.

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Neurilemma

Plasma Membrane (Peripheral part of Schwan cell)

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Myelinated Fibers

Nerves that are have myelin.

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Myelin Sheath/ Myelin

Fatty insulating sheath that surrounds all but the smallest nerve fibers.

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Nodes of Ranvier

Gaps/indentation in the myelin sheath.

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Unipolar Neurons

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Neuron in which embryological fusion of the two processes leaves only one process extending from the cell body.

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Bipolar Neurons

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Neuron with axon and dendrite that extend from opposite sides of the cell body.

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Mulipolar Neurons

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Neurons with three or more processes; most common neuron type in the CNS.

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Afferent Neurons (Sensory)

Neurons that carry implulses to or toward the CNS.

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Efferent Neurons (Motor)

Neurons that carry impulses away from the CNS

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Association Neurons (Interneurons)

Nerve cell located between motor and sensory neurons that shuttles signals through CNS pathways where integration occurs.

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Mixed Nerves

Nerves containing the processes of motor and sensory neurons; their impulses travel to and from the central nervous system.

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Afferent Nerves (Sensory)

Nerve that contains processes of sensory neurons and carries nerve impulses to the central nervous system.

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Efferent Nerves (Motor)

Nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the central nervous system.

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Endoneurium

Connective sheath that surrounds individual nerve fibers; insulates from other nerve processes.

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Perineurium

Connective tissues that binds a group of nerve fibers together. (Covers fascicles)

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Epineurium

Binds together multiple fascicles to form a cord-like nerve.

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Fascicles

Bundle of nerve fiber.

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

Brain and spinal cord.

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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Consists of nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord.

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Grey Matter

Gray area of the central nervous system; contains neuronal cell bodies and their dendrites.

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White Matter

White substance of the central nervous system; myelinated nerve fibers.

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Blood-Brain Barrier

Mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the blood into brain tissues; reflects relative impermeability of brain capillaries.

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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Plasmalike fluid that fills the cavities of the CNS and surrounds the CNS externally; protects the brain and spinal cord.

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What is A?

Dendrite

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What is B?

Axon Terminals

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What is C?

Cell Body

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What is D?

Nucleus

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What is E?

Myelin Sheath

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What is F?

Axon

50
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What is G?

Nodes of Ranvier

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What is H?

Neurolemma

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What is I?

Schwann Cell

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What is J?

Axon Hillox

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What is A?

Epineurium

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What is B?

Perineurium

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What is C?

Fascicle

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What is D?

Endoneurium

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What is E?

Axon

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What is F?

Blood vessels

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What is G?

Spinal Nerve