Human body science 2
The three primary Body planes:
- Transverse plane
- Sagittal plane
-Coronal (or frontal) plane
Dive the body into imaginary upper and lower halves!
Divide the body into right and left!
divide the body vertically into front and back ( anterior and posterior)
Medial & lateral
Medial: nearer to the midline of the body
Lateral: Is further away from the body midline!
Proximal & Distal
Proximal: closer to the center of the body
distal: further away from the center of the body
Anterior & Posterior
Structure in the front, Anterior
Structure in the back, posterior
Cephalad & Caudad
Cephalad: is toward the head!
caudad: toward the tails!
Superior & Inferior
superior, closer to the head
Inferior, closer to the tail!
the skin and its associated structures.
Protect the body from abrasion and bacterial attack.
Serve as control mechanism for internal temperature
provide a reserve of blood vessels that can be used as necessary
Produce vitaminD for metablolic purposes
Layers of the skin
Top layer; epidermis
the layer beneath is the dermis!
Structure and function
It is a dense connective tissue which protects te body !
Is a process which results in a new layer of skin in human every month or so.
It helps the skin heal itself after minor injuries and it also forms barriers against toxic substances and bacterial infection!!!
- Movement: Moves the body!
- Mineral storage: for essential mineral ions
- Support: the organs
- Protection: keys organs of the body
- Blood cell formation: red blood cells are produced in the red marrow of certain bones!
Connective tissue with a base of pulp containing collagen and living cells!
Deterioration of bone in old age, particularly in women!
Bone tissue life cycle
They are constantly regenerating as the mineral composition change!
This allows for special needs during the growth period and helps maintain the calcium levels for the body!!!
the number of bone in the human body
Axial skeleton: Te skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebral column
appendicular skeleton: the bones of the arms, feet, hand, legs, hips, shoulder!!
Stacked one above another, they provide cushioning for the backbone!!
Types of joints
Synovial Joints: most common, and freely movable.
- They are found at the shoulders and knees
Cartilaginous joints: they have restricted movement
Fibrous Joint: They are fibrous tissues connecting bones, and no cavity is present!!!!!
Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal
There is over 600 muscle in the human body!
System of levers
Is when muscles and bones are working together. their works move around the joints!!
Movement: mixes and passes nutrients through the system and eliminate waste!
secretion: of enzymes and hormones necessary for digestion
Digestion: Chemical breakdown of nutrient!
absorption: the passage of nutrients through the plasma membrane into the blood, lymph and body
Part of the human digestive system
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomack, small and large intestine, rectum anus!
the systems that control the digestive system:
The nervous and endocrine system.
The contracting and relaxing of smooth muscle in other to move the nutrient along.
Where digestion begin
starting with chewing and mixing the nutrient with saliva!
A liquid which contains enzymes that initiate the breakdown of starch in digestion!
A flexible muscular sac
- Mixing and storing food
- Dissolving and degrading food via secretions
- controlling passage of food into the small intestine
The type of digestion that begin in the stomach
Where the absorption process begin
In the small intestine!!
The largest solid organ in the body, and the largest gland!
It weighs about 3 pounds
it is located below the diaphragm on the right side of the chest!!
It is secured to the diaphragm and abdominal wall by five ligaments
It is made of 4 lobes
Name of the four lobes of the liver
Name of the five ligaments that secure the liver
- The falciform:
It forms a membrane-like barrier between the right and left lobe.
- Right triangular
- left triangular
- round ligament
The liver receive nutrient-rich blood via the hepatic portal veins.
Liver functional units
They are made up layers of liver cells!!
Blood passage way
Blood enter the lobules through branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery!
They then flow through small channels called sinusoids!!!
Production of bile
Production of certain blood plasma proteins
Production of cholesterol
storage of excess glucose in form of glycogen
Regulation of amino acid
Processing of hemoglobin
Conversion of ammonia
Purification of the blood
Regulation of blood clotting
controlling infection by boosting immune factors and removing bacteria!!!!
Blood and Nutrient processing
The liver convert all the nutrient that pass through into form that is appropriate to the body!
It also processes all the blood that pass trough the digestive system
All nutrient are absorbed there
Role of the enzyme in the small intestine
they come from the pancreas, liver, and stomach to aid digestion.
They act on fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins!
Bile storage between meals
secreted by the liver, the bile is stored in the gall bladder between meals!!!!
Tinyy absortive structures that greatly increase the surface area with chime, which covers the lining of the small intestine!
A semi liquid mass of partially digested food
Epithelial cell at the surface of the villi
They increase the ability of the small intestine to work as the main absorption organ of the digestive tract!!
Also called colon
It concentrates, mixes, and stores waste!