Human body science 2

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1

The three primary Body planes:

- Transverse plane

- Sagittal plane

-Coronal (or frontal) plane

2

Transverse plane:

Dive the body into imaginary upper and lower halves!

3

Sagittal planes:

Divide the body into right and left!

4

Coronal(frontal) plane

divide the body vertically into front and back ( anterior and posterior)

5

Medial & lateral

Medial: nearer to the midline of the body

Lateral: Is further away from the body midline!

6

Proximal & Distal

Proximal: closer to the center of the body

distal: further away from the center of the body

7

Anterior & Posterior

Structure in the front, Anterior

Structure in the back, posterior

8

Cephalad & Caudad

Cephalad: is toward the head!

caudad: toward the tails!

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Superior & Inferior

superior, closer to the head

Inferior, closer to the tail!

10

Integumentary system

the skin and its associated structures.

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Functions:

Protect the body from abrasion and bacterial attack.

Serve as control mechanism for internal temperature

provide a reserve of blood vessels that can be used as necessary

Produce vitaminD for metablolic purposes

12

Layers of the skin

Top layer; epidermis

the layer beneath is the dermis!

13

Dermis

Structure and function

It is a dense connective tissue which protects te body !

14

Keratinization

Is a process which results in a new layer of skin in human every month or so.

It helps the skin heal itself after minor injuries and it also forms barriers against toxic substances and bacterial infection!!!

15

Skeletal system

Role

- Movement: Moves the body!

- Mineral storage: for essential mineral ions

- Support: the organs

- Protection: keys organs of the body

- Blood cell formation: red blood cells are produced in the red marrow of certain bones!

16

Bone structures

Connective tissue with a base of pulp containing collagen and living cells!

17

Osteoporosis

Deterioration of bone in old age, particularly in women!

18

Bone tissue life cycle

They are constantly regenerating as the mineral composition change!

This allows for special needs during the growth period and helps maintain the calcium levels for the body!!!

19

the number of bone in the human body

206 bones

20

Bones regroupments

Axial skeleton: Te skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebral column

appendicular skeleton: the bones of the arms, feet, hand, legs, hips, shoulder!!

21

Intervertabral disc

Stacked one above another, they provide cushioning for the backbone!!

22

Types of joints

Synovial Joints: most common, and freely movable.

- They are found at the shoulders and knees

Cartilaginous joints: they have restricted movement

Fibrous Joint: They are fibrous tissues connecting bones, and no cavity is present!!!!!

23

Muscular system

Types,and total

3 types!

Smooth, cardiac, and skeletal

There is over 600 muscle in the human body!

24

Muscle properties

excitability

contraction

elongate

25

System of levers

Is when muscles and bones are working together. their works move around the joints!!

26

Digestive system

Function

Movement: mixes and passes nutrients through the system and eliminate waste!

secretion: of enzymes and hormones necessary for digestion

Digestion: Chemical breakdown of nutrient!

absorption: the passage of nutrients through the plasma membrane into the blood, lymph and body

27

Part of the human digestive system

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomack, small and large intestine, rectum anus!

28

the systems that control the digestive system:

The nervous and endocrine system.

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Peristalsis

The contracting and relaxing of smooth muscle in other to move the nutrient along.

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Mouth

Where digestion begin

starting with chewing and mixing the nutrient with saliva!

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Saliva

A liquid which contains enzymes that initiate the breakdown of starch in digestion!

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The stomach

function

A flexible muscular sac

- Mixing and storing food

- Dissolving and degrading food via secretions

- controlling passage of food into the small intestine

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The type of digestion that begin in the stomach

Protein digestion

34

Where the absorption process begin

In the small intestine!!

35

Liver

description

The largest solid organ in the body, and the largest gland!

It weighs about 3 pounds

it is located below the diaphragm on the right side of the chest!!

It is secured to the diaphragm and abdominal wall by five ligaments

It is made of 4 lobes

36

Name of the four lobes of the liver

Right

Left

Quadrate

Caudate lobes!

37

Name of the five ligaments that secure the liver

- The falciform:

It forms a membrane-like barrier between the right and left lobe.

- Coronary

- Right triangular

- left triangular

- round ligament

38

Blood transportation

The liver receive nutrient-rich blood via the hepatic portal veins.

39

Liver functional units

Lobules

They are made up layers of liver cells!!

40

Blood passage way

Blood enter the lobules through branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery!

They then flow through small channels called sinusoids!!!

41

Liver function

Production of bile

Production of certain blood plasma proteins

Production of cholesterol

storage of excess glucose in form of glycogen

Regulation of amino acid

Processing of hemoglobin

Conversion of ammonia

Purification of the blood

Regulation of blood clotting

controlling infection by boosting immune factors and removing bacteria!!!!

42

Blood and Nutrient processing

The liver convert all the nutrient that pass through into form that is appropriate to the body!

e.g drugs

It also processes all the blood that pass trough the digestive system

43

Small intestine

All nutrient are absorbed there

44

Role of the enzyme in the small intestine

they come from the pancreas, liver, and stomach to aid digestion.

They act on fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins!

45

Bile storage between meals

secreted by the liver, the bile is stored in the gall bladder between meals!!!!

46

Villi

Tinyy absortive structures that greatly increase the surface area with chime, which covers the lining of the small intestine!

47

Chime

A semi liquid mass of partially digested food

48

Microvilli

Epithelial cell at the surface of the villi

They increase the ability of the small intestine to work as the main absorption organ of the digestive tract!!

49

Large intestine

function

Also called colon

It concentrates, mixes, and stores waste!