1820-1860 Monroe and Mexico
US position among nations after War of 1812
Stronger but still wary
World events that contributed to US wariness
Fuzzy resolution of War of 1812, simmering disputes with Russia, and the Greek revolution
What was the Monroe Doctrine and when did it occur?
Dec. 1823, Monroe's statement to congress in effect "HANDS OFF OUR HEMISPHERE!"
The Monroe Doctrine stated specifically...
that we would view any European attempt at recolonization in the New World as an act hostile to the US
The Monroe Doctrine does not state specifically...
1. How we would discriminate b/w northern and southern American countries
2. Exactly what kind of action we would take
How did Americans respond to the Monroe Doctrine?
Enthusiastically for a short time
How did Europeans respond to the Monroe Doctrine?
with hostility or disbelief
How did the British respond to the Monroe Doctrine?
tried to take credit for deterring French and Spanish interference in the New World
How were the US and Mexico similar?
1. settled by European immigrants who faced constant challenges from indigenous peoples
2. won independence from a mother country
How were the US and Mexico different?
1. Mexicans mostly shared a common language and religion
2. Mexico had not been able to form a stable gov't
Gen. Santa Ana was known as...
brilliant, erratic, master motivator and manipulator who often switched sides
Zachary Taylor was known as...
"Old Rough and Ready" because of his willingness to share the hardships of his men
The beginning of Mexico's troubles in TX
Mexico invited southern Mexicans and Americans to migrate into TX
What were the conditions of migration into TX?
Speak Spanish, adopt Catholicism, and give up slavery
American settlers happily adopted Spanish ways
What happened at the Alamo?
American settlers led by Jim Bowie, Davy Crockett and Wm. B Travis barricaded themselves in the fort. After 12 days' seige, Santa Ana's forces broke through and killed all the men
When did the battle of the alamo occur?
Feb - March 1836
When did TX declare its independence?
Apr. 21, 1836 at the Battle of San Jacinto
Divided opinions on TX as a nation
1. Some Texans wanted statehood, some wanted to remain independent
2. Britain and France favored an independent TX and urged Mexico to recognize TX
3. Southerners feared British influence would lead to abolition and race war
What President initiated process of annexation for TX?
John Tyler in 1844
How did Mexico view TX statehood?
as a "most scandalous violation" and severed diplomatic relations with the US
What reasons did James Knox Polk have for going to war with Mexico?
He had designs on New Mexico and California too
He thought the British had designs on California
He invoked the Monroe Doctrine
Who did Polk send to Mexico to negotiate before going to war?
John Slidell of Louisiana, fluent in Spanish language and Mexican culture
How did Mexico respond to Slidell?
They thought he had come to reestablish diplomatic relations and were insulted when he asked for California and recognition of the Rio Grande River boundary instead of the Nueces River boundary
What finally prompted Polk to commence war?
Mexican troops attacked a Taylor patrol inside what Mexico thought of as their country
Future notables who fought in Mexico
Robert E Lee, US Grant, Jefferson Davis
Who led the campaigns for CA and New Mexico?
Stockton and Fremont in CA, and Kearney in New Mexico. Both campaigns quickly successful
The war with Mexico was supposed to last about ___ but ended up lasting about ____.
3-4 months, 2 years
Battle of Buena Vista
Taylor's 4000 men victory over 20,000 Mexicans at Monterrey, Feb. 1847
Final campaign in Mexico
Winfield Scott's 12,000 besiege and capture Veracruz, then move to occupy Mexico City, march 1847
The war with Mexico had a budget of $_____ but ended up costing about $_____
$10 million, $97 million + $15 million in US citizen claims against Mexico
Death toll of war with Mexico
Treaty that ended the war with Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
How was the question of slavery in the new territory settled?
Wilmot Proviso of 1848 banned slavery in territory acquired from Mexico
The Mexican war added _____ land to the U.S.
1.2 million square miles
US presidents from 1817-1860
John Quincy Adams
Martin van Buren
Wm Henry Harrison
James Knox Polk