Biology - Exam 2

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created 3 years ago by luvlymandy10
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Cell Parts and Functions
updated 3 years ago by luvlymandy10
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1

Cytoplasmic inclusions

Cells use these compartments composed of phospholipids for storage of various molecules in their cytoplasm that can be accessed when they are needed by cells

2

Exocytosis

Process by which cells expel bulk quantities of materials such as wastes from the cell; fusion with the plasma membrane leads to release of contents outside of cell

3

Vesicles

Transports materials such as proteins and other substances within cells. Provides temporary storage of food, enzymes and waste products

4

Cytoplasm

Jelly-like substance in the cell that contains all organelles and provides a medium for most cellular processes

5

Nucleus

Organelle that houses a molecule that manages or controls all the cell functions in a eukaryotic cell

6

Chloroplast

Closely stacked, flattened sacs containing chlorophyll (a green pigment that traps energy from sunlight and gives plants their green color); similar to mitochondria

7

Lysosome

Compartment within cells that contain enzymes that digest excess or worn-out cell parts, food particles and invading viruses or bacteria. Involved in the breakdown of phagocytized material.

8

Ribosomes

Attaches to portions of the endoplasmic reticulum when bound to RNA molecules to mediate protein synthesis. Guide protein synthesis.

9

Nucleoplasm

Compartment of viscous liquid that surrounds the chromosomes and nucleoli; also contains nucleotides and many proteins

10

Golgi apparatus

Modifies/packages proteins for transport out of the cell; synthesizes macromolecules

11

Extracellular matrix

Materials secreted externally to the cell that supports cells and tissues and participated in cell signaling

12

Smooth ER

Produces lipids and serves for detoxification

13

Nuclear envelope or membrane

Composed of 2 phospholipid bilayers, contain transport proteins, and serves an important function to house and protect DNA

14

Cytoskeleton

Provides support for the cell via three types of protein fibers. Consist of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.

15

Chromatin

Collection of DNA and protein in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Nuclear DNA exists as a complex of proteins.

16

Microtubules

Consist of hollow tubes which provide support for the cell and serve as tracks for motor proteins to transport materials through the cell

17

Cilia

Small hair-like structures used for movement or sensing things in many unicellular microorganisms

18

Cell membrane

Surrounds the cell separating it from the extracellular environment and surrounds most organelles

19

Flagella

Long whip-like structures composed of proteins/motor proteins used for movement of cells

20

Nuclear lamina

Composed of protein filaments that aid in providing support to the nuclear structure

21

Mitochondria

Produces a usable form of energy for the cell and modulates cell death mechanisms

22

Plasma membrane

A complex selectively permeable organelle that surrounds the cell aiding in structural support, cell communication, and transport of vital molecules into the cell

23

Endocytosis

Process by which cells take in large quantities of materials from the extracellular surrounding; vesicle is formed on the interior and pinches off cell membrane

24

Nucleolus

A non-membrane bound structure; responsible for production of ribosomes which are required for protein synthesis

25

Gap junctions

Forms channels across plasma membranes between cells to exchange materials and for cell communication. Responsible for communication between cells.