1800-1812 Barbary Pirates
What did the Barbary Pirates specialize in?
Demanding tribute, plundering ships, ransoming or enslaving foreign sailors in the Mediterranean
Where were the pirates based?
North African states: Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli & Tunis
US position of risk from pirates
As a British colony, we had some protection. After the Revolution we were on our own.
How did the US deal with the pirates at first?
Followed international custom and paid tributes
What did the US immediately learn about the cause of the piracy?
Muslim rulers considered it their duty to attack and punish non-Muslims whenever they could.
What was one pirate offense that the US found especially egregious? (1783)
Kidnapped crews of 3 ships and demanded $80,000 ransom. Congress paid the ransom but was unable to raise enough money from the states to obtain peace treaty.
Who was able to obtain a treaty without a cash settlement, and why?
Thomas Barclay, because the pasha disliked the British
What was Jefferson's response to the pirates as President?
Blockaded North Africa and sent 4 warships and Marines to Tripoli
What concession did the US have to make in order to gain a peace agreement with the Muslim rulers?
Had to write in a description of the US as "not a Christian nation."
What was the bottom line of the war with the pirates?
War cost more than the tributes but was a great victory in terms of morale
Casualties of war with pirates
40 US, 1000 Muslim
In 1793, ____ took over 11 ships and over 100 sailors
Outcome of the offense by Algiers
US paid ransom and paid for treaties worth about $1 million, plus annual tributes of cash, ships, gunpowder or naval supplies
When did the US have to describe itself as "not a Christian nation?"
In order to obtain the treaties of 1793
US Presidents from 1776-1812
Who declared war first in the Mediterannean?
Tripoli declared and hacked down the US flag at the consulate. (1801)
True/False. Jefferson responded ferociously to the Tripolitan declaration of war.
False. At first he just sent 4 warships to blockade the coast.
When did Jefferson have to escalate the war with "every available ship and the Marines?"
How were we able to undermine the government of Tripoli?
US consul plotted with the pasha's exiled brother
What city did the Marines capture in 1805?
Durna, 2nd largest city in Tripoli
Who made the march on Derna?
8 marines and about 400 Greeks and Arabs
What was involved in the peace agreement of 1805?
US paid $60,000 ransom for hostages and agreed to leave the pasha's brother in exile
Why were the pirates able to resume harrassment in 1807?
The US was preparing for war with Britain
When were the pirates finally defeated?
In a show of force after the War of 1812