Human Anatomy & Physiology: Cardiovascular System Flashcards


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created 5 years ago by Whitneyn17
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1

Coverings of the heart

1. Pericardium

2. Epicardium

3. Myocardium

4. Endocardium

2

Pericardium

* Double walled sac

  • Fibrous - loose fitting, dense CT, superficial
  • Serous - 2 layer, thin, slippery
    • Parietal layer - lines internal surface
    • Pericardial cavity - serous fluid
3

Epicardium

  • Visceral layer
  • Adipose tissue
4
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Myocardium

  • Cardiac muscle
  • Arranged in spiral or circular bundles
  • Cardiac skeleton reinforced via collagen and elastic fibers
5

Endocardium

  • Squamous epithelium + CT
  • Inner myocardial surface
  • Covers valves
  • Continuous with lining of BVs
6

Pericarditis

  • Roughens serous membrane surfaces
  • Visceral and parietal layers stick together
  • Constricted ventricular filling

Symptoms:

  • Creaking sound - pain deep in stern
  • Can lead to cardiac tamponade - inflammatory fluid seeps into pericardial cavity
7

Atria

* Push blood down to ventricles

  • Fossa ovalis - Formally foramen ovale in utero
    • Common to not fully close

Right Atrium:

  • Posterior - smooth walled
  • Crista terminalis - separates post. from ant.
  • Anterior - pectinate muscles form ridges
  • Receives deoxygenated blood from SVC, IVC, & coronary sinus (blood draining from myocardium)

Left Atrium:

  • Mostly smooth, pectinate in auricle only
  • Receives oxygenated blood from lungs (4 pulmonary veins)
8

Ventricles

...

9

Blood flow through valves

  1. Enter RA through SVC, IVC, or coronary sinus
  2. Pressure pushes tricuspid valve to open
  3. Blood enters RV (80%), atria contract to push remaining 20% in
  4. Atrial valves close, papillary muscles contracts and chordae tendineae tighten to prevent back flow
  5. RV contracts, putting pressure on pulmonary valve
  6. PV opens and RV relaxes, valves close to push blood into lungs through pulmonary arteries (R & L)
  7. Blood releases CO2 and picks up oxygen in the lungs, (4) pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood back to LA
  8. Increased pressure on bicuspid valve open to release blood into LV (80%) , atria push remaining 20% in
  9. Atrial valves close, papillary muscles contracts and chordae tendineae tighten to prevent back flow
  10. LV contracts, putting pressure on aortic valve, causing it to open
  11. Aortic valve opens and LV relaxes, causing aortic valve to close
  12. Blood is released via aorta to the body
  13. Tissues take up oxygen from blood and release CO2 to send back to heart
10

Systolic vs. Diastolic

Systole - Contracting

Diastole - Filling

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Conduction System

  1. SA node (pacemaker) send an impulse for atria to contract
  2. Impulse travels down and pauses at AV node