Bio2020 exam 3

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1

Upon entering the eye, the first structure that strikes is the ?

Cornea

2

most refraction in the

cornea

3

Normal Vision

Emmetropia

4

During Accommodation

the pupils reflexively constricts, the iris expands, is parasympathetic nervous system.

5

Myopic Eye

eye ball shapes elongated from Anterior to Posterior

6

Cells in the Retina that respond to bright light

Cones

7

More densely packed in central retina? (Cones or Rods)

cone

8

More densely packed at zero degrees with respect to the path of light (Cones or Rods)

cone

9

Role in color vison (Cones or Rods)

cone

10

High acuity (cones or rods)

cone

11

More densely packed in the peripheral retina (cones or rods)

rods

12

Plays a bigger role in dim light (cones or rods)

rods

13

Visual pigment composed of

Retinal + the protein Opsin

14

Axon's of which cell compromise the optic nerve?

ganglion cells

15

The sensory neurons that detect oderant molecules are located in ?

mucus

16

Somas are of the sensory neurons are located in

Olfactory Epithelium

17

Humans can not smell under water because

the odor will not be gaseous

18

Gustatory epithelium cells are depolarized by

Tastant Molecules

19

Which of the 6 of molecules usually have the lowest threshold

(most Sensitive)

bitter

20

Sour, bitter, and salty are perceived because of ___,___, and ___, respectively

Acid, alkaloids, Sodium chloride

21

Cranial Nerves that carry taste -derived action potential are

Facial, Glossopharyngeal and Vagus

22

Besides their position along the length of the basalt membrane depends on the ____ of sound.

Length and degree of stiffness

23

lipid-soluble hormones are carried through the blood

usually bound to a plasma binding protein

24

After vibrating the oval window, sound vibrations enter the

scala vestibule

25

which hair cell are stimulated along the length of the basilar membrane depends on the ___ of sound

Pitch

26

The membrane that directly contacts the stereo cilia of the hair cells in response to vibrations of s particular pitch is the

tectoral membrane

27

Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.

cochlea

28

When hair cells are vibrated (tilted) towards the tallest stereocilium, which of the following are not true?A) mechanically gated K+ and Ca2+ channels are open; (B) hair cell plasma membrane is depolarized; (C) neurotransmitter is released; (D) none of the above – they are all true.

None of the above -they are all true

29

The basic functional organ to detect static equilibrium is the

Macula

30

Utricle and saccule maculae differ with respect to

The orientation of their respective hair cell

31

Receptors in the macula are stimulated by A) bending of hair cells; (B) the forward/backward movement of the head; (C) the drag of the otolith membrane across the top of the stereocilia D) all of the above.

All the above

32

Rotational acceleration of the head is detected by the cristae ampullares, which uses hair cells to allow the brain to perceive rotation. These hair cells are stimulated by a (A) ampullary cupula; (B) inertia of endolymph fluid across the top of stereocilia; (C) the direction of flow of endolymph across the top of the stereo cilia, D) all of the above.

All the above

33

The endocrine system controls functions of all of the following, except (A) growth; (B) metabolism; (C) reproduction; (D) feeding, satiety and water balance; E) none of the above – all these functions are controlled by the endocrine system.

none of the above – all these functions are controlled by the endocrine system.

34

A cell in a tissue secretes a hormone. That hormone then affects a different kind of cell in that same tissue. This is called

paracrine

35

Lipid-soluble hormones are carried through the blood

usually bound to a plasma binding protein.

36

Lipid-soluble hormones’ receptors are located __________ because they can ________the plasma membrane.

Inside the cell, diffuse through

37

The ultimate, final effect of both water-soluble and lipid-soluble hormones is to (A) cause changes in gene expression; (B) maintain homeostasis; (C) keep the animal alive and functioning; D) all of the above.

all of the above

38

you have just finished a meal. The glucose that is now in your blood causes the release of the hormone insulin. this is an example of...

humoral stimulation

39

you are really stressed out and nervous because you are about to undergo a very important job interview. So, a lot of epinephrine is released. this is an example of..

neural stimulation

40

Assuming two different cell types respond to the same hormone, whose concentration is relatively constant. Cell type A has very few receptors for that hormone, but cell B type B has many more receptors for that hormone. Which cell will be affected more by the hormone?

Cell B

41

Suppose a hormone has a half-life of 20 minutes. What % of the hormone will be remaining in the body of at 1 hour?

12.5%

42

Growth hormone ...

promotes growth and maintenance of bone and muscle

mobilizes fuels for easy access and use

breaks down fuel stores, such as adipose (fat) and glycogen (carbohydrates)

all of the above

43

which hormones are not released from the adrenal gland?

insulin

44

factors that cause the release of insulin are

glucose, amino acids and fats in the blood

parasympathetic nervous system activity

psychological anticipation of eating

all of the above

45

the function of insulin is to

distribute glucose to all cells in the body

store excess nutrients (carbohydrates and lipids) in muscle and liver

all of the above

46

Glucagon ...

antagonistic to insulin

causes the breakdown of carbohydrate and fat stores to be released into the blood

additive or synergisitc to epinephrine

all of the above

47

Aldosterone, which is released from the ___ has the similar function as ____ released from the posterior pituitary

adrenal cortex, antidiuretic

48

which hormone is not released from the hypothalamus-pituitary pathway?

insulin

49

the hormone that probably has the most widespread effects (affects the most cell in the body) is

thyroid hormone

50

Ganglion cells in the retina, hair cells in the cochlea, and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb are analogous because

their axons make up their exiting cranial nerves (II, VII, and I respectively)

51

cones in the retina respond to bright light (high stimulation). which is the analogous structure that respond to very loud sounds in the inner ear?

tympanic membrane

52

linear acceleration of the head is detected by bending of hair cells, whose stereocilia are dragged/bent by the otolith membrane. For rotational acceleration, the analogous structure that drags/bends stereocilia is

endolymph

53

upon entering the eye, the last structure that light strikes is the

retina

54

near-sighted vision is known

myopia

55

in a hyperopic eye

eye ball shape is elongated from dorsal to ventral

56

which are the photoreceptors cells in the retina?

rods and cones

57

Gustatory epithelial cells respond to tastes, then send neurotransmitter to dendrites of neurons and then send impulses directly through the cranial nerves to the brain

true

58

a cell in a tissue secretes a hormone

autocrine

59

water-soluble hormones' receptors are located___ because they can ____receptors on the plasma membrane.

on the surface of the cell, bind to

60

assuming two different cell types respond to the same hormone, whose concentration is relatively constant. Cell type A binds that hormone kind of loosely, but cell type B binds that hormone very tightly. Which cell will be affected more by the hormone?

Cell B

61

suppose a hormone has a half-life of 30mins. What % of the hormone will be remaining in the body at 1 hour?

25%

62

Which hormone is released from the pancreas?

insulin

63

which hormone is NOT released from the hypothalamus-pituitary pathway?

glucagon